Wednesday, December 25, 2019

The People Have Been Proud For Over 200 Years - 1599 Words

We the American people have been proud for over 200 years in our constitution and we continue to tell ourselves that we are privileged to live in the â€Å"home of the free†. Tyrants cannot rise to power here because our constitution and the structure of our government doesn’t allow it. Tyrants live and prosper in places like North Korea, Nazi Germany, and Afghanistan, torturing their inhabitants under their rule. However, critics of our system imply that the implementing action can be difficult and sometimes impossible. Impossible because the system, particularly when faced with controversial subjects often introduces gridlock. In politics, gridlock is a situation when there is difficulty of passing laws in a legislature, because the votes for and against a proposed law are evenly divided, or the executive branch and the legislature are controlled by different political parties, or otherwise cannot agree. So, we start seeing our president in alarming rates bypass Con gress with executive agreements, sending troops into countries without declarations of war, and executive orders. In turn, we see an everlasting dispute over the intended separation of powers between the president and Congress. In Article I, Clause I of the Constitution states â€Å"All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States† yet we still see overstepping of this boundary. The president is also the commander in chief, but Congress alone has the right to declare war. TheShow MoreRelatedEssay about Anzac Sprit669 Words   |  3 PagesThe ANZAC legend is many things to many people, to me the legend is as relevant today as it was 95 years ago, it is who we are as a people. The Anzac Legend is the Australian Spirit. This Anzac spirit has changed little over the past 95 years, the fundamental appeal and Spirit of the ANZAC legend is as relevant and strong today as it was on the day it was born, 25th April 1915, they were united under a common flag, a common emblem and a common outlook. Over the ensuing 8 months of fighting at GallipoliRead MoreDatabase Experience Essay Examples1459 Words   |  6 PagesWhen I have friends over my house or show off my collection of books, sometimes they’ll ask me about my outdated books on Unix and my copy of ‘Database System Concepts.’ They wouldn’t believe me when I told them where I got them from - I acquired these at NASA Langley Research Center. They wouldn’t believe me until I showed them the ‘withdrawn’ stamp, and to be fair - If I were my younger self listening in, I wouldn’t have believed me either. When I was in early high school, that idea of theRead MoreA Review On Corporate Sponsorship1654 Words   |  7 Pagesattention to that both sides can be the reason for the end of these connections. Philanthropies don t generally consider partnerships responsible for guarantees made in light of the fact that they re only cheerful to have the company giving whatever they can, and enterprises have minimal motivator to stay contributed since the relationship doesn t generally profit them.† For example ‘The Kroger Co’ can benefit in many ways sponsoring feeding America. It enhances company s image and visibilityRead MoreWrongful Convictions : Innocent Until Proven Guilty? Essay1316 Words   |  6 PagesWrongful Convictions: â€Å"Innocent Until Proven Guilty?† Have you ever been grounded or punished by your parent’s for something you honestly didn’t do? Maybe your sibling or friend stole something or hurt someone and the blame and the â€Å"horrible† consequences were put on you. No phone, no TV, no friends over, confined to your room. Straight tortures and a feeling of betrayal and dishonesty from everyone around you. Now, imagine being an adult wrongfully accused of a major crime such as an armed robberyRead MoreThe Constitution Of The United States1300 Words   |  6 PagesThe Constitution was signed over 200 years ago and it still stands as the single most important document in the history of the United States because it laid the groundwork for at the rights and liberties that we enjoy today. This document created a government comprised of three equal parts; the Executive, the Legislative and the Judicial branch. This ensured that no one branch had more power than the others; a system of checks and balances with each having a specific role which collectively formedRead MoreAnalysis Of Debra Nussbaum In The Marching Band And Proud Of It963 Words   |  4 Pagesâ€Å"In the Marching Band and Proud of It† by Debra Nussbaum followed the story of the marching band from Pennsbury High School in Philadelphia. In the second paragraph, Nussbaum claimed that band can be â€Å"cool†. Marching bands travel across the US, are becoming increasingly competitive, and perform more interesting shows. The Pennsbury marching band has a respected reputation in the school because they gain national recognition and have a certain prestige within the school. The prevalence of band isRead MoreThe Anzac Legend : An Important Aspect Of Our Identity Essay1737 Words   |  7 Pages The Anzac legend is an important aspect of our identity as a New Zealander. We have every reason to be proud of this historical event. In saying this, many New Zealanders died for us (as New Zealanders) and for our country, in order to give us a chance for a good life and be able to make a success of it. This essay will examine reasons of the Anzac legend and how it has been incorporated into the New Zealand identity. One aspect that this legend evaluates its place in our national identity is ourRead More Jesse Owens Essay787 Words   |  4 Pagesinch. Going on to the next year he set another worlds record for the one-hundred meter dash at the time of 10.2 seconds. He then was so good he went on to the 1936 Olympics as a member of the U S Olympic team, the games were held in Berlin, Germany where blacks were not accepted as well as whites and because of that Reichfuekrer Adolf Hitler did not acknowledge the achievements that he did perform, despite his athletic ability. He won four Olympic gold medals in the 200 and 100 meter dash, theRead MoreA History of Oppression: the Mistreatment of Australian Aboriginals1541 Words   |  7 Pagesaboriginal people (Aboriginal Australia - For nearly 50,000 years, Australia has served as home to these ancient indigenous people (Aboriginal Australia – Australia’s natives have been victims to oppression in many ways and for various reasons for nearly 200 years. They’re land had been taken over by European settlers, and later on they faced more oppression when attempts to assimilate Indigenous people into white society were made. For over a centuryRead MoreGraduation Speech : Thank You Essay1646 Words   |  7 Pageshard over a long period of time, and we owe her a major debt of gratitude for her service to our country. I mean that very sincerely. Now it is time for America to bind the wounds of division, have to get together. To all Republicans and Democrats and independents across this nation, I say it is time for us to come together as one united people. It is time. I pledge to every citizen of our land that I will be president for all of Americans, and this is so important to me. For those who have chosen

Tuesday, December 17, 2019

I Had The Pleasure Of Volunteering At Both Hope Haven And...

For my service learning project, I had the pleasure of volunteering at both Hope Haven and Brooks adaptive sports. Both organizations are great places known for helping people with disabilities. Hope Haven is an institution that focuses on education and therapy for children and families in need. Their sole mission is â€Å"to ensure that children and families realize their full potential by providing specialized services and individualized educational opportunities† (Mission). Hope Havens whole vision is to shape individuals into independent, educated people who are able to function in community life (Missions). Brooks adaptive sports has a very similar mission to Hope Haven, but is more geared toward recreational activities. Their mission is to â€Å"Provide individuals with physical disabilities the inspiration, education, training, access and opportunity to participate in a world class adaptive sport and recreation activities† (About). I completed my first sixteen hours of service learning at the Hope Haven summer camp for the special needs children. This was a great experience and definitely one of my favorite places to volunteer. I was able to contribute to the organization by keeping an extra eye on the children in their various activities. This included ensuring the children were having fun and not getting into mischief. I also helped set up and take down activities they had planned for the children. I did everything they asked of me and made sure to help kids who needed me.Show MoreRelatedStephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge (2011) Organizational Behaviour 15th Edition New Jersey: Prentice Hall393164 Words   |  1573 PagesLibrary of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Robbins, Stephen P. Organizational behavior / Stephen P. Robbins, Timothy A. Judge. — 15th ed. p. cm. Includes indexes. ISBN-13: 978-0-13-283487-2 ISBN-10: 0-13-283487-1 1. Organizational behavior. I. Judge, Tim. II. Title. HD58.7.R6 2 2012 658.3—dc23 2011038674 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 ISBN 10: 0-13-283487-1 ISBN 13: 978-0-13-283487-2 Brief Contents Preface xxii 1 2 Introduction 1 What Is Organizational Behavior? 3 The Individual Read MoreDeveloping Management Skills404131 Words   |  1617 Pagesindex. ISBN 978-0-13-612100-8 1. Management—-Study and teaching. 2. Management—Problems, exercises, etc. Kim S. II. Title. HD30.4.W46 2011 658.40071 173—dc22 I. Cameron, 2009040522 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 ISBN 10: 0-13-612100-4 ISBN 13: 978-0-13-612100-8 B R I E F TA B L E O F C O N T E N T S Preface xvii Introduction 1 PART I 1 2 3 PERSONAL SKILLS 44 Developing Self-Awareness 45 Managing Personal Stress 105 Solving Problems Analytically and Creatively 167 PART II 4Read MoreLibrary Management204752 Words   |  820 Pagesinformation science text series) Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978–1–59158–408–7 (alk. paper) ISBN 978–1–59158–406–3 (pbk. : alk. paper) 1. Library administration—United States. 2. Information services— United States—Management. I. Moran, Barbara B. II. Title. Z678.S799 2007 025.1—dc22 2007007922 British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data is available. Copyright  © 2007 by Robert D. Stueart and Barbara B. Moran All rights reserved. No portion of this book may be reproduced

Sunday, December 8, 2019

Skills in Global

Question: Discuss about the Skills in Global Management. Answer: Introduction Increased globalisation is leading the organisations to accommodate a culturally diverse workforce that have a number of benefits. These multicultural workforces shares the differences and commonalities that helps the organisation to explore wide range of idea and increased organisational performance. However, the benefits can only be attained on increased management efficiency developed by the manager. Hence, the efficiency of a global workforce is equivalent to the management efficiency held by the global manager. This essay will reflect upon the skills required as well as the skill I need developed for directing a global workforce. The later part of the essay will identify the action plan required to develop my skills in particular areas identified. Skills Expected to manage global environment As mentioned, global managers requires a number of skills that helps them leading the multicultural workforce. According to my understanding, global managers must develop excellent communication skills that helps them in number of aspects such as team building, diversity management, dealing with problems, surviving catastrophe and relationship development process. Global managers are responsible for both building and managing team with multicultural employees by bringing them together for performing a single task. Hence, an efficient multicultural team is expected to develop efficient communication between the employees and develop healthy relationship with each other. Moreover, I think that the global leaders are viewed as role models the employees are to follow. Hence, it is important for the manager to reflect charismatic personality that will influence the employees to devote themselves towards the work and try to achieve the position held by the leader. Moreover, I observed that the motivation factor is of primary importance to lead a global multicultural team. It is expected from the leaders to reflect optimism and encourage their employees by motivating them at work. It might be sharing feedback and appreciation for the job performed by the subordinates or support them in their task as well as to direct them towards the desired goal. Hence, motivation is another important skill a leader must poses for efficiently managing the global workforce. Intellectual stimulation on the other hand is also an important skill that helps the managers valuing the creativity and autonomy of the subordinate that encourages them and increase their interest in devoting themselves towards the organisations goal. Moreover, I understand that the Vrooms expectancy helps the employees in aligning the expectations with the organisational goal that results in attaining greater performance. These are the skills required by the global leaders for efficiently managing their multicult ural workforce, which again can be linked with the transformational leadership style, which expects similar skills from the leaders. Personal Skill Assessment Communication skills is the primary barrier that I need to work on as I lack in the particular field. Though I have developed my skills to communicate to my colleagues from the same cultural background, it is difficult for me to have a long conversation with colleagues belonging from different cultural background. Moreover, I find it difficult to start conversation with new people, as I require time to know the individual before properly communicate with him or her. Presentation skills I developed in my career is also moderate, which I need to work on before considering becoming a global leader as it is essential for the leader to present a confident and encouraging figure before the subordinates. This will not only help me in communicating with the subordinates, but also help in motivating them. Secondly, I need to develop my ability to motivate and encourage people, which again requires a high level of optimistic point of view. This requires me to train myself viewing things from p ositive perspective to constantly motivating the subordinates and appreciate their effort. This can be attained thorough self-actualisation as it helps building motivation. Action Plan Area of Development Plan Time Communication Practice listening to others before commenting 3 months Involve myself in multicultural groups 6 months Practicing non-verbal communication skills using smile and gesture 6 months Practice expressing honest opinion 3 months Develop speaking skills, which includes clear pronunciation, moderate voice and withhold emotions. 6 months Personality Practice identifying positive aspects in everything 12 months Practice respecting others thoughts by appreciating them 6 months Read motivational articles 6 months Teamwork Engage in group activities 3 months Start discussion in group 6 months Effective goal setting 3 months Foster online learning community 12 months Conclusion It can be concluded from the above discussion that the global leaders requires a number of skills, among which the communication skills can be prioritised as this particular skill is involved in every other characteristics developed by a global manager. In short, on needs to develop transformational leadership style for managing a global workforce. The action place I developed can effectively help me in developing the skills of communication, teamwork and personality that I lack in course of becoming a global leader.

Sunday, December 1, 2019

Titanic Tragedy free essay sample

Who was responsible for the loss of life with the sinking of the Titanic? By Rebecca Gutteridge Year 9 RMS Titanic, so called the ‘unsinkable ship’, became the largest maritime disaster in history when she hit an iceberg on her maiden voyage through the North Atlantic. Much indecision surrounds the blame circle of the sinking of the largest vessel ever built and there are many theories which divide experts even today. However many believe it is an accident which could have been averted. I believe that a combination of factors are at fault. Harland and Wolff Harland and Wolff had difficulty finding enough  workers, and in an effort to save money employed poor riveters from small forges; the work needed was very skilled and each rivet was hand crafted. In the British inquiry Harland and Wolff were accused of importing less rivets than were needed and sub- ­? standard iron to save money. We will write a custom essay sample on Titanic Tragedy or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The rivets used for the majority of the ship were only crafted from iron which is weaker than steel – considered state of the art at the time. Only the central hull used steel rivets as wrought iron was easier to work by hand. The iceberg ripped along the hull which pinpoints that even the strongest rivets were not a match against  the force of the collision. Recent scientific analysis of rivets found in the wreckage showed that the iron rivets contained large amounts of molten slag, which would have made them weak and brittle causing the heads to crack on impact; therefore weakening Titanic’s resistance against the iceberg. However the velocity of the impact was predicted at 1 million tonnes per second which although cannot be proven I think would have fatally damaged even a modern ship as the recent sinking of the Costa Concordia shows. So I think this is not the cause of the ships sinking. Environmental factors The shipping lane Titanic  took on the night crossed the Labrador Current: a very cold band of water which carried icebergs from Greenland along the North Atlantic. Between November 1911 and Titanic’s sinking 20 boats had sunk across the shores of Newfoundland. In 1912 it had been exceptionally mild and roughly 1000 entered the shipping lanes when the average was 500. This should have been taken into account and the captain should have prepared for this. Also in testimonies given during the inquiry passengers and crew commented on how â€Å"unnaturally cold† the night had been and that the sea had been so calm it was â€Å"hard to distinguish

Tuesday, November 26, 2019

Privacy of Social Application Essays

Privacy of Social Application Essays Privacy of Social Application Essay Privacy of Social Application Essay Essay Topic: The Social Contract Privacy of Social Application Name: Institution: Privacy of Social Application Abstract The main topic being researched is the loss of privacy within social networking applications. The first section contains the introduction that offers detailed information into the extent of privacy loss within the most popular social media sites such as Facebook and Twitter. In this section, the challenges that face increased privacy are addressed in detail. Included in this part are the description of the main issues and objectives of the research paper. The section concludes with several statistics that emphasize the extent of social networking usage as well as the consequences involved. The next section is the literature review that contains information collected from various sources on the definition, nature, characteristics and concept in social privacy. This section also contains the existing works written by various researchers on privacy in social applications such as theories and case studies. The last section covers the Platform for Privacy Preferences (P3P) analysis in de tail after which the paper concludes with a conclusion summarizing the main points. Introduction Social media has been defined by Michael Haenlein and Andreas Kaplan as â€Å"a group of Internet-based applications that build on the ideological and technological foundations of Web and that allow the creation and exchange of user-generated content (Kaplan Haenlein, 2010).† In addition, social media operates on web-based technologies and mobile applications to develop vastly interactive platforms that link together people and groups, generate, chat about, and alter user-generated material. Social introduces significant and invasive transformations in the communication between companies, groups and people. Organizations seeking bigger opportunities have turned to social collaboration devices that have transformed it into a $42 billion market. These organizations use social networking applications for nearly all functions including recruitment, advertisements and promotions and for maintaining customer relationships and satisfactions. In this paper, the hidden or complex relationship between the front end user, third party application organizations and social networking sites is elaborated in depth. With the widespread use of social media by communities, organizations and individuals, several privacy challenges have emerged. Most of these challenges were initially present but the development and introduction of Web 2.0 served to pronounce them to significant levels. Through the usage of Web 2.0, social networking sites such as LinkedIn, Orkut and Facebook have not only thrived exponentially, but they have also encouraged the development of third party developers who use the social applications to release their own applications (Politis et al., 2009). Most of the privacy challenges are caused by these third party applications as they are awarded the same privileges as the owner of the accounts. Social media networking sites have also stated in their policies that these third party applications have full access to p ersonal information. However, this has not deterred social media users for providing their full information. However, part of this behavior can be attributed to the services offered by these companies that make the access to personal information a mandatory requirement before anyone can finish the installation process. Individuals are, therefore, unaware of the large amount of information that these third party applications because of the hidden nature of the relationship. This paper also discusses the addiction and effects of excessive usage of these applications on individual’s productivity, health and privacy. Privacy issues within social networking sites have been not only identified, but also vast amount of investigations are underway to respond to the risks that accompany the provision of personal information of social networking users (Politis et al., 2009). Some of the challenges within online social networking applications include cyber stalking and tracking and disclosure of individual’s locations. Several third party applications within most social networking sites border on stalking the users that subscribe to their services. A classical example is the application ‘Creepy’ that can allow its users to track people’s location using photos uploaded on Orkut or Twitter (Ruff Winn, 2010). Advanced devices can even narrow down the location using longitudes and latitudes. This poses many possible risks to users who distribute their personal data to a large number of friends. The ‘Places’ application in Facebook works in the same way and has the same effect of exposing one’s geographical location to the rest of the followers on his or her account. Social networking applications have also been cited as being misused by data aggregation organizations that make use of the social data to make thei r own financial and administration decisions (Huijsman et al., 2012). These organizations engage in social profiling activities that are partly supported by social networks (Kaplan Haenlein, 2010). Because of the liberal subscription policies in the creation of social network accounts, most sites report numerous cases of illegal or prohibited activities that involve underage account holders. Teenagers and preteen account users in Facebook and Twitter have been the subjects of sexual abuse, indecency and theft perpetrated by corrupted users (Ruff Winn, 2010). While there are age restrictions, the implementation of these measures has been largely minimal. Lastly, law enforcement agencies such as FBI and CIA are permitted by law to impersonate different people in social networks. These privacy challenges have made social networking applications the topic of many researches and studies. Issues and Objectives The privacy tool within the social network environment acts as an important security device. There are instances when intruders attempt to mine private information from one’s profile without their permission. In such occurrences, the privacy aspect on social network applications becomes the main concern. The unauthorized intruder can access critical information such as images, contacts and names from a user’s account (Ruff Winn, 2010). Other sophisticated cyber criminals access the private information from different users and use it to engage in criminal activities. Handling the issue of loss of privacy within social networking sites is very difficult due to its nature. Globally, there are numerous social network accounts that can almost double the number of people in the world given that an individual may have an account in each site (Facebook, Twitter, Orkut etc.) (Leitch Thomas, 2012). Therefore, regulating the activities of these social networking applications is capital intensive considering the scope of the activities that include organizations, communities and individuals. There is also a problem concerning the best approach to take in handling the privacy issue in most social networking applications. This is because the purpose of these sites is to encourage networking and bring social circles closer to people. These activities demand that a user provide their information. Furthermore, social networking has been transformed into a multi-million business and this has introduced other stakeholders that have to be consulted in the process of executing any reforms concerning privacy (Kaplan Haenlein, 2010). Objectives The main objective of the paper was to discover the state of privacy within social applications and seek out ways to solve these issues thereby improving the quality of service in social networking. Many users of social media do so with the expectation that their personal information will be exposed to a limited and selected number of users. The responsibility therefore lies with the social network provider to put into action privacy devices that are both straightforward and adequately assessed to allow users to have sufficient control over whatever material they make public (Ruff Winn, 2010). Therefore, a successful privacy device has to address the following dimensions of a permissions approach, the objects exposed in the public domain, the main actors in the social networks and actions can be taken once users can acquire these objects. Contribution The advancement of social networking sites have served to open up the world to new possibilities in communication and networking. However, they have also revealed the grave setback of increased internetworking and public contact in the loss of privacy. For prominent social networking websites such as Twitter and Facebook, offering one’s identity and other personal information as a way of creating an online profile are the main activities promoted by the site (Kaplan Haenlein, 2010). This information may include an individual’s date of birth, home address, and mobile contact(s). Some social network applications even for greater information on personal preferences and activities for example, interests, pastimes, preferred literature or movies, and the status of one’s relationship. While this is true for most social applications that encourage networking, the same cannot be said for social applications such as online dating sites, where anonymity is highly desired. In these unique cases, it is difficult to link someone to their ‘online profile’. These advancements have created a culture of people who have lost all meaning of privacy and have therefore increased the amount of private information to very many people (Trepte Leonard, 2011). However, there are several issues with the provision of such sensitive information to social networking sites and these issues shall form the core of this paper. Literature Review Extensive research and investigation into issues relating to privacy in the Internet and its subsidiaries such as social networking sites has been done with excellent outcomes that have guided future decisions in handling privacy issues. The issue of security and social privacy has had the largest impact on the popular sites than smaller, less known ones (Trepte Leonard, 2011). However, it is important to separate the aspects of security issues and privacy issues. However, both types of problems are closely related when it comes to social networks. The issue of magnitude emerges when the impending damage to a user occurs in a renowned social site having many users. An example is a Facebook user having 2,000 friends and belonging to 40 groups who can be categorized as being more vulnerable compared to someone having 10 friends (Trepte Leonard, 2011). Legal Implications and Aspects of Privacy in Social Applications While the social networking and media craze continues to transform the existing environment and become the standard method of advertisements and communication for organizations, communities and individuals, it is increasingly important to deal with the legal risks linked to social media use effectively (Tang Yang, 2012). The marketing model based on the application of social media involves direct contact with and collecting vital information about, consumers and clients in order to more resourcefully and successfully deliver their promises. Highly detailed and precise data on different social media users is naturally more valuable to the company collecting it. Logically, as they collect and apply data on social media usage, companies are exposed to personal information belonging to those users. The most common areas containing legal privacy obligations are in the terms of use for specific social media platform. Social media platforms endeavor to limit privacy threats to their users against commercial parties by prescribing detailed conditions and limitations concerning the compilation and utilization of personal information. For instance, third party applications developed to be used in Facebook, companies cannot extract information from a user’s friends list outside of the application. Companies are only permitted to use the Facebook API to replicate, modify, develop copied works, share out, trade, relocate, publicly display and perform, transmit content (Tang et al., 2008). Regrettably, the failure to adhere to these privacy-related conditions of use has regularly put companies into legal difficulties. The problems can emerge directly with the social media service provider as a ban or a lawsuit concerning actions that breached the contract. Additionally, an infring ement of the responsibilities prescribed in the terms and conditions of use may be assumed as the grounds for court cases against organizations using social media (McMenamin, 2010). On a global level, several states and regional organizations including New Mexico and Utah have made the move to bar companies from forcing potential employees from giving out their social networking accounts before they are employed. Some of the main aspects in the Internet Employment Privacy Act (IPEA) include provisions that barred employers from asking for usernames and passwords and from taking unfavorable actions based on the results of their social networks (Pierson, 2012). However, in deeper analysis, the IPEA initiative was partly unsatisfactory as it gave employers the leeway to access the employee’s account in issues that affected the company’s operations for example sabotage or corporate espionage. Misconduct among employees on the social sites was also subject to inspection by the employers. The only coercive aspect of IPEA was the monetary fine of $500 that would be awarded to any individuals who felt that this law was violated in their case (Ruff Winn, 2 010). This penalty was by far a small cost that most companies could easily cover and continue violating this law. Technical Implications and Aspects of Privacy in Social Applications The invasion of personal privacy within social media applications has contributed to increased social insecurity. Social media might have entrenched itself as a dominant force, but consumers and organizations alike have intentionally overlooked the social security and privacy consequences of being part of these sites. There are quite a few security risks to consider when handling social media. One of the most apparent problems that almost all users of Twitter and Facebook experience regularly is spam mail (Ruff Winn, 2010). While spam is definitely frustrating and can lower individual productivity, spamming in itself is a form of hacking. Account hacking and data leaks contribute towards a drop in productivity, customer loyalty, or confidential data loss to the rival companies. Most individuals who have had accounts in social networking sites for long periods have definitely experience hacking attempts. This may seem insignificant but for a company account, hacking poses a great th reat to their image and data storage (Mintz, 2012). The recent hacking of the giant pharmaceutical company, Pfizer is a classical example of insecurity with the social networking environment. The Pfizer case involved a combination of a poor password composition and low accountability in sharing credentials. The hack tarnished Pfizer’s image making it look untrustworthy and disorganized (Andrews, 2012). The hacking affected their business operations especially human resource activities involving requesting customers for their opinions and preferences. A study performed by an online security company, Bit Defender revealed that over 70% of company credentials were easy to locate in the social networking sites (Andrews, 2012). Of these companies evaluated, a large number of them used the same password for their social media accounts as they used for their e-mail accounts. This made it extremely easy for rogues to make off with crucial data or taint the image of a company. Another major security threat entails social engineering and malware. While the two elements are not related, the easiest technique of spreading harmful software makes use of social engineering (Hogan, 2012). This type of intrusion normally comes in the form of a friend posting a link or an object on your account. Known as the Koobface worm, this is just one type of this type of social engineering being used. Apart from the loss of productivity when specialists have to eliminate the malware, these harmful programs can have extremely negative impacts on the data stored and the functionality of the actual machine and this results in significantly more delays and costs as these problems have to fixed (Hogan, 2012). Social Implications and Aspects of Privacy in Social Applications Loss of privacy within social networking sites has numerous effects on the social status of individuals, organizations and communities. One of these implications is the loss of reputation or standing in the public arena (Andrews, 2012). Social media mishaps can contribute to the disrepute of a company or an individual using their exponential nature of spreading throughout different social circles in a short period. Individuals have had pictures taken of them engaging in controversial activities being posted on Facebook and going ‘viral’ even though they did not post them in the first place (Andrews, 2012). There are also instances of brand attacks that are characterized by a group of people who post controversial or incriminating material on social media sites with the aim of tarnishing a brand’s reputation. Nestle was the victim of such an attack in 2010 when a hacker posted destructive content on their Facebook account page (Mintz, 2012). To make matters worse, the PR official in charge handled the matter in an uncivilized way leading to further damages fro the company. On their part, Facebook did little to offer any assistance to the public relations problem apart from offering the opportunity for Nestle to remove or turn off the negative remarks altogether (Pierson, 2012). Without a doubt, these efforts by the company to cover up the drama resulted in an increased focus on the issues mentioned by the hacker and the evolution of newer groups that lashed out at Nestle. These mishaps points toward the need for a business to develop a strong social media policy in the event that a public relations catastrophe spirals out of control. Administrators of social media should realize when the situation calls the deletion of a comment or rescinding the rights offered to followers in a page or group (Mintz, 2012). Platform for Privacy Preferences (P3P) analysis The term Platform for Privacy Preferences Project (P3P) refers to a protocol that permits websites to state publicly their planned use of data collected about Internet users. The protocol was developed to provide users with more control of their sensitive information when on the Internet. P3P is a product of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) that was launched officially in 2002. However, after the initial launch, very little has been done to improve the quality and features besides minor improvements (McMenamin, 2010). Commercially, Microsoft was the only company to incorporate the P3P protocol in their web browser, Internet Explorer. The incompatibility, expenses and lack of value were cited as the main challenges that contributed to the failure of the P3P protocol (Tang Yang, 2012). Purposes of the P3P Protocol With the transformation of the World Wide Web into a mainstream medium for the transaction of services and goods, stakeholders in the electronic commerce used different techniques to gather more information about the customers who bought their products. This need created innovations such as tracker cookies to assist in collecting consumer data. On their part, users perceived this as an intrusion of privacy and would, therefore, use proxy servers or turn off the HTTP cookies to maintain the integrity of their personal information (Trepte Leonard, 2011). The main purpose of P3P was to offer web users more control over the amount and type of information they could release to the public. From the W3C side, the main aim of developing P3P was to enhance user confidence in the Internet through empowerment using technical methods. Features and Mode of Operation P3P is a program-specific language that eases the process of data management within different websites. Websites that operate under the P3P protocol function under a set of privacy policies that display their planned use for any information they might need from the user, and any site visitor (Trepte Leonard, 2011). If a P3P protocol is being used by a client, he or she can set their own policies regarding the amount of information that can be extracted by the different websites. In the process of browsing in a website, the P3P compares the set preference by the user with that of the demands in the website. If the two match, the website will be tagged as ‘certified’ or ‘trusted’ and can be accessed by the user (McMenamin, 2010). In the event that the two do not match, P3P informs the user of the anomaly and asks if they are willing to offer more of their personal information when they enter the site. Apart from the obvious benefit of additional security, P3P possess several other benefits that make it unique and useful. Through P3P, users are given the opportunity to comprehend the privacy policies in a basic and structured fashion rather than searching for additional privacy settings in the browser’s setting or the website. Therefore, each user can determine what cookies to allow and block any cookies that they may deem intrusive (Hogan, 2012). Through the P3P Toolbox, users can regain their confidence and trust on the Internet by implementing P3P fully (Bidgoli, 2009). The Toolbox provides a detailed explanation on how individuals and companies can access private information without seeking the consent of the user. Furthermore, these companies misappropriate this sensitive information by creating unnecessary notifications, spam (junk mail) and identity theft rackets. All these problems emphasize the importance of implementing P3P especially for regular Internet users. De spite the increase in browser use and the development of HTML, P3P has been structured to use technology to instill elements of individual preferences and data management behavior among Internet users (Drushel Kathleen, 2011). Criticisms According to studies done by the Electronic Privacy Information Center (EPIC), the whole procedure of installing and implementing the P3P protocol was perceived as being too difficult and ineffective for regular users. The EPIC cited the level of complexity in the software and implementation process, and claimed that, for programmers and other computer experts, it was usable, but to the average user, it was not user-friendly (Agrawal et al., 2003). Most people were unfamiliar with the interface, the installation process and the updating procedures. Another related issue was that it was not compulsory for all websites to limit themselves to the P3P parameters. Therefore, P3P3 failed to take off largely because it was not needed by most websites. P3P served to work against their need to collect additional user information that would enrich their marketing and customer relationships (Tang et al., 2008). Another criticism approached the P3P proposal as being misleading to the regular Internet user. From the definitions, P3P came out as a security measure that protected people’s privacy from online parties. However, in reality, P3P only controls the data management through the websites. P3P functions by letting the user choose what they deem fit to furnish to websites. In most cases, users do not comprehend the safe level of information they can expose to websites and end up setting the P3P parameters too low and in the process, exposing themselves to predatory websites (Tang et al., 2008). Therefore, the misperception that P3P is a security and privacy measure was wrong. A New Specification for Privacy In Social Applications Increasing User Awareness on the importance of privacy Transforming the perceptions of users of social networking applications is one of the approaches towards changing the state of privacy loss currently being witnessed in the social media. This behavior change has been witnessed in several age groups, but the youngest users of these sites have offered the best example. Recent studies have shown that most teenagers and young adults (19-25) are more aware of the consequences of posting sensitive material on Facebook, Twitter and other social sites (Strandburg Daniela, 2006). Apart from watching what they post on these sites, these teenagers have also become more informed in maintaining the privacy over their information. This behavior was noticed after Facebook staff realized that most teenagers were ‘cleaning’ up their profiles by removing any compromising photos, deleting any negative comments and generally ensuring that their accounts were decent. This drastic change among the younger age group was triggered partly by t he vast information on how to make their accounts safer (Drushel Kathleen, 2011). Therefore, informing people on the best way to hide sensitive information is a workable approach. Closely related to the earlier point is the need for social media members to understand the privacy policies as well as the terms and conditions. Proper understanding of these regulations that guide the behavior of the individual, the social site provider and third party application is highly significant in lowering instances of privacy loss. While attempting to understand the relationship between these three parties may be difficult, knowing the basic roles played by each party is important. For instance, knowing the extent to which third party applications are allowed to reach concerning personal information will assist an individual in choosing whether to give that application the right to access his or her account (Tang et al., 2008). Another key element that most people overlook is that the social site providers are not responsible for the actions of the third party applications even though they collaborate in one platform (Drushel Kathleen, 2011). Knowing these and other aspects of operation greatly helps in lowering cases of privacy violation. The responsibility to disseminate these sets of information lies squarely with the social site provider. The company should be responsible for ensuring that all its users understand the risks or threats that come with exposing sensitive information on the Internet. This issue of misinformation was one of the causes of the failure of the P3P initiative (Andrews, 2012). Government Enforcement of Regulations concerning Social Sites The government should take a front seat in the fight against the loss of privacy within social media sites. This can be done through formulation and implementation of policies concerning free speech, administration of social networking sites and company activities regarding the sharing of personal data (Strandburg Daniela, 2006). Just like any other activity within the state borders, social networking is also subject to different regulations encapsulated within the communication sector. The issue of businesses that use websites to retrieve personal information without the user’s knowledge is the most urgent. Government policy should be formulated regarding the conduct of businesses particularly companies that engage in data collection for projection or marketing purposes. The policy should restore the right to divulge sensitive information back to the user. Social media providers such as Facebook should also be held accountable for the lackluster approach concerning privacy in their services. While several states in America have adopted regulations on employee-employer relations concerning social media transparency in the workplace, much has to be done to ensure that all these activities are covered under law. However, while including the government in the effort to restore privacy in social media sites, it is crucial to acknowledge that the government may fail to be effective owing to the laissez faire structure of the social media environment, as well as the magnitude of the issue at hand (Drushel Kathleen, 2011). Reforms by Social Media Providers Social media providers play the largest role in ensuring that privacy is restored to users of their services. These providers should assess whether the purposes being used for social networking are suitable. Most services offered by social networking sited are developed for communication needs but are normally used for other corrupted functions, and this changes the whole purpose of the service. For instance, Facebook has a ‘Pages’ service that has been manipulated by adult companies and other indecent organizations making it lose its meaning altogether. These providers should also stress on the importance of anonymity while using these services. While it is evident that the providers avoid any loss of privacy to the user, they offer little or no information to direct the users on anonymity (Andrews, 2012). Informing the members that their private information could be made public will be informative and helpful in averting cases of privacy loss. Conclusion Eventually, the current trends in the universe point towards an increased dependence on the Internet, computers and the social media to assist in advertising, marketing and communication. With this affirmed as a fact, it is evident that privacy and security issues will continue to plague individuals, communities and organizations within these social media networks. However, gaining information on security and privacy measures will go a long way in ensuring that an individual can shield themselves or their business from most of these negative aspects of privacy loss in social applications (Clark, 2010). The notion that businesses will continue to grapple for accounts in prominent social media sites such as Facebook, Orkut, My Space and Twitter is inevitable. It would be senseless and imprudent to write off the possibilities completely that social media can open up for a business. While making that statement, social media can also be the main factor creating losses and wastage of time for an individual or an organization given the rapid increase in privacy and security problems with the advancement of social media. In some cases, these problems are worsened by the approaches taken by social media companies making it a very insecure marketing tool. References A. M. Kaplan and M. Haenlein, The challenges and opportunities of social media, Business Horizons, Vol. 53, Issue 1 (61), 2010. A. P. Mintz, Web of Deceit: Misinformation and Manipulation in the Age of Social Media. Medford, N.J.: CyberAge Books, 2012. B. Drushel, and G. M. Kathleen, The Ethics of Emerging Media: Information, Social Norms, and New Media Technology. New York: Continuum, 2011. C. Leitch, and H. Thomas, Realistic Supervision of Technology and Social Media in the Public Workplace. Public Risk. 2012. D. Politis, J. K. Phaedon, and I. Ioannis, Socioeconomic and Legal Implications of Electronic Intrusion. Hershey, Pa: Information Science Reference, 2009. H. Bidgoli, Global Perspectives in Information Security: Legal, Social and International Issues. Hoboken, N.J.: J. Wiley Sons, 2009. H. Hogan, Social Media and the New Surveillance: Facebook and Twitter Bring with Them New Counterterrorism Tools - and New Issues for the Public. Hstoday. 2012. H. Lindskog, and L. Stefan. Web Site Privacy with P3P. Indianapolis, Ind: Wiley Pub, 2003. J. McMenamin, Risks and Benefits of Using Social Media. Disaster Recovery Journal. 2010. J. Pierson, Online Privacy in Social Media: A Conceptual Exploration of Empowerment and Vulnerability. Communications and Strategies. No. 88: 99-120. 2012 J. R. Clark, Social Media and Privacy. Air Medical Journal. 2010 J. Tang, W. Chen, and J. Wang. A Study on the P3P Problem. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. no. 5226: 422-429. 2008. K. J. Strandburg S. R. Daniela, Privacy and Technologies of Identity: A Cross-Disciplinary Conversation. New York: Springer Science. Business Media, 2006. L. B. Andrews, I Know Who You Are and I Saw What You Did: Social Networks and the Death of Privacy. New York: Free Press, 2012. L. Ruff and S. Winn. #Privacy Tweet Addressing Privacy Concerns in the Day of Social Media. Cupertino, Calif: THINKaha, 2010. R. Agrawal, J. Kiernan, R. Srikant, and Y. Xu, Implementing P3P Using Database Technology. Proceedings of the international conference on data engineering. no. Edit 19: 595-606. 2003. S. Trepte, and R. Leonard, Privacy Online Perspectives on Privacy and Self-Disclosure in the Social Web. New York: Springer-Verlag, 2011. X. Tang, and C. C. Yang, Social Network Integration and Analysis Using a Generalization and Probabilistic Approach for Privacy Preservation. BioMed Central Ltd. BioMed Central Ltd, 2012. Y. Huijsman, L. Jolanda, G. Rilana, and K. Mara. Social media for seniors: personal and business communication through social networking. [Netherlands]: Visual Steps, 2012.

Friday, November 22, 2019

Sublimation Process

Sublimation Process Sublimation is the term for when matter undergoes a phase transition directly from a solid to gaseous form, or vapor, without passing through the more common liquid phase between the two. It is a specific case of vaporization. Sublimation refers to physical changes of transition, and not to cases where solids convert into gas due to a chemical reaction. Because the physical change from a solid into a gas requires the addition of energy into the substance, it is an example of an endothermic change. How Sublimation Works Phase transitions are dependent upon the temperature and pressure of the material in question. Under normal conditions, as generally described by kinetic theory, adding heat causes the atoms within a solid to gain energy and become less tightly bound to each other. Depending on the physical structure, this usually causes the solid to melt into liquid form. If you look at the phase diagrams, which is a graph that depicts the states of matter for various pressures and volumes. The triple point on this diagram represents the minimum pressure for which the substance can take on the liquid phase. Below that pressure, when the temperature drops below the level of the solid phase, it transitions directly into the gas phase. The consequence of this is that if the triple point is at high pressure, as in the case of solid carbon dioxide (or dry ice), then sublimation is actually easier than melting the substance since the high pressures needed to turn them into liquids are typically a challenge to create. Uses for Sublimation One way to think about this is that if you want to have sublimation, you need to get the substance beneath the triple point by lowering the pressure. A method that chemists often employ is placing the substance in a vacuum and applying heat, in a device called a sublimation apparatus. The vacuum means that the pressure is very low, so even a substance that usually melts into liquid form will sublimate directly into vapor with the addition of the heat. This is a method used by chemists to purify compounds and was developed in the pre-chemistry days of alchemy as a means of creating purified vapors of elements. These purified gases can then go through a process of condensation, with the end result being a purified solid, since either the temperature of sublimation or the temperature of condensation would be different for the impurities than for the desired solid. One note of consideration on what I described above: condensation would actually take the gas into a liquid, which would then freeze back into a solid. It would also be possible to reduce the temperature while retaining the low pressure, keeping the whole system beneath the triple point, and this would cause a transition directly from gas into solid. This process is called deposition.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Labour Law (feminism) [ question in the box ] Essay

Labour Law (feminism) [ question in the box ] - Essay Example , self-employed and assumed all economic risks with respect to her earnings.1 This case reveals the complexities of the debate over the feasibility of considering sex workers who are by and large ‘service providers’ in an entertainment industry as employees and in doing so engages the feminist debate over whether or not sex workers are legitimate employees.2 The feminist debate on sex work is divided into two opposing views. On the one hand, radical feminists view sex work as nothing more than a facilitator of male ‘sexual aggression’ against women.3 Indeed the male power theme associated with prostitution is captured by those who liken prostitution with slavery and thus conjures up reflections of white slavery. However, within the European Union (EU), anti-prostitution policies are typically aimed at eliminating street prostitution and treating prostitution as a public nuisance that is primarily an involuntary career choice.4 On the other hand, post-modern liberal feminists argue that women are free to do as they wish with their ‘own bodies and sexuality’.5 Thus liberal feminists take the position that sex workers are voluntarily engaged in sex work and in should be protected as any other worker should be. Thus from the radical feminists’ perspective, sex work should be banned. From the perspective of the postmodern liberal feminists, sex work is a valid and legitimate form of work and should therefore be regulated as such.6 The radical feminists’ perspective hinges on abrogation which is influenced by dominance feminist theory which views sex work as an exploitation of women.7 Postmodern liberal feminists on the other hand propose a ‘theoretical model of sex-worker rights’.8 However, when the definition of employee is taken into account, the feasibility of sex-worker rights is questionable. This is because an employee by definition is an individual requiring protection from an employer who is in turn obligated to protect his or her

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

Analysis of Violence Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 1

Analysis of Violence - Essay Example We have characters that are considered as the models who defied the violence as a means to achieve their objectives. Probably the paramount example is of Jesus Christ. Records suggest that Jesus was a pacifist and the dictionary definition of Pacifist suggest someone as opposed to the violence. There is a very famous saying associated with Jesus that if someone slaps on your right cheek, give him the left too. His teachings and methods were greatly opposed to the violence as a means to achieve the objectives. Though the political situation at that time was extremely volatile and violence would have been the most natural reaction however the same was not the case. Though evidence suggests that followers of Jesus were violent in their response to Jesus cruxification, however, Jesus himself as a prophet, as a leader and political activist. (Rational Chrastinity, 2008). The second personality which we are going to discuss is the personality of Mahatma Gandhi. Mahatma Gandhi oversaw one of the brightest freedom struggles in the World. The liberation of India from the British rule was one of the longest and bloodiest freedom struggles, however, Gandhi, by adopting the principles of HANSA, refused to adopt violence as the mean to achieve his objectives. His Sataygra or Non-Violence Movement is considered as one of the most organized political efforts of non-violence where the whole India was united in their peaceful protest against the British Occupation. (BBC, 2000). The political history of also further suggests that Gandhi, who was killed by a Hindu, stood for the rights of divided India when India was separated into two states of Pakistan and India. It was because of these reasons that he was awarded the prestigious MAN OF THE CENTURY nomination at the turn of the new century. The similarity between these two personalities is the fact they both adapted peace as the mean of achieving their objectives though at the cost of their own lives.

Sunday, November 17, 2019

United Nations Essay Example for Free

United Nations Essay â€Å"The UN is made up of 191 nations from around the world. It is frequently called the UN. It was established in 1945 soon after the Second World War as a means of bringing people together and to avoid war. The UN logo depicts the world held in the olive branches of peace†. (CBBC Newsround) United Nations: Post Cold War Era The United Nations is considered to be an international entity that has â€Å"struggled with the challenges of globalization for several years, especially since the Asian financial crisis† (Ruggie, 2003, p. 1); it has power, according to one people, to solve the international issues such as wars; however to another group of people, the United Nations has its own certain limitations beyond which it cannot operate or seems not to be operating. The very first evidence in this regard when the United Nations is seen almost completely paralyzed despite with all its might is the Cold War era that stretched over 40 years. In this connection, Holmes (1993) informs us that â€Å"For over 40 years, the Cold War conflict between the United States and the Soviet Union paralyzed the peacekeeping functions of the United Nations. With few exceptions, the United Nations and other multinational organizations were ineffective in resolving major conflicts because of the zero-sum nature of the Cold War†. In 1993, Holmes critically reviewed the United Nations’ operation in the scenario of the Post Cold War era and that time he came up with the observation that the United Nations had a heavy hand put by the United States of America. He tells us that the United Nations operations like peacemaking, peace-enforcement, and military involvement were limited for certain reasons such as the huge monetary aid, the troops contribution by world states to back up the United Nations’ force. These limitations, according to Holms, kept United Nations a body that was not independently powerful to take actions against any mayhem going on in the world. He tells us of the U. S. policymakers that how they would look for the loopholes where they could make a way into the controlling of the United Nations so the national sovereignty could be secured: â€Å"The challenge for U. S. policy makers is to identify these circumstances and to develop guidelines for ensuring that U. S. interests are protected. The United States should, in this regard, be sensitive to three variables: (1) how a peacekeeping operation affects American national security; (2) how much it costs; and (3) the degree to which it erodes American sovereignty† (Holmes, 1993, p. 1). The kernel point to Holmes (1993) is that the United Nations is not a free body to work without pressure from a country (the U. S. ) so â€Å"if it attempts to overreach its powers, and pretends to be an independent force in international politics, the United Nations will surely fail in maintaining any kind of world peace and stability† (Holmes, 1993, p. 1). Moving ahead we witness a similar remark made by O’Brien (2003) that â€Å"The United Nations was conceived by the United States 60 years ago to express, embody and extend American ideals†; yet there is another observation by Goff (2003) that the United Nations is only as strong as is the will of the states which run it: â€Å"The United Nations system relies on the collective will of all its members. It is these member states that set its priorities. The United Nations cannot act without their consent. It falls, therefore, upon us all to make the United Nations relevant in todays world† (2003, p. 1). Frankly speaking, In practice the United Nation has not developed as was first imagined initially it was composed mainly of the Allies of World War II, largely European major countries, , and nations of the Americas and Commonwealth countries. It was imagine as an organization of â€Å"peace-loving† nations, who were uniting to stop future aggression and for other humanitarian reasons. However, Close cooperation among members was predicted; and the Security Council especially was predicted to work in relative unanimity. Hopes for necessary accord were soon crashed by the frictions of the â€Å"cold war†, which impacted the functioning of both the Security Council and other UN organs. The United Nation has played a comparatively secondary role in the most world crises, including 1973; the Pakistan-India War of 1971; the Afghanistan war and Vietnam Israeli-Arab Wars of 1967. However in the very begging of 1970s the united nation amplified its activity in the development of less dominant countries. (Schuijt, 2005) â€Å"Even as the U. N. is called on to tackle enormous problems like ethnic, state and religious conflicts and sustainable use of natural resources, the organization reflects the imbalance of power that exists between powerful and weak nations† (Schuijt, 2005) Certainly, it would be true to say that some dominant countries are using the United Nations as a vehicle for their own interest and rule over the world. David Shorr cited the great example on this thing in â€Å"world have the UN they deserve by saying that the â€Å"The UN is only as strong or as week as governments want it to be. Member states should stop using the UN as a â€Å"scapegoat† for governments’ failure to achieve international consensus. The UN cannot change on its own; the responsibility lies with governments to implement reform in the best interest of the UN†. (Shorr, 2006) Many developing countries’ leaders opine that the UN in every aspect discriminates between developing and non-developing countries. Moreover, the UN is playing a dual role for different countries in every aspect, whether politics, social norms, safety, security etc. for instance, Bahamas continues to emphasize the need for bigger and more comprehensive discussion of globalization and its effects on the well-being of concerned commonwealths, with the United Nations given a role in solving these issues. Further they quoted that, we have continuously expressed dangerous concerns over certain decisions by the United Nations or its organs that were not coherent with the aims and intentions of the Charter. However, nothing was done to right the wrong. When errors are discovered, it becomes our obligation to correct them. They further emphasized, that UN should go over the legal political basis of its own undertakings in the period of 1950s and 1960s in relation to the cardinal rights of our Melanesian sisters and brothers in the Asia-Pacific region, especially in West Papua and the UN must not in this â€Å"The United Nations cannot and must not, in this new millennium, carry on to turn a blind eye on its own past failures, which has led UN to three long, agonizing decades of injustice, tragedy and guerrilla warfare in West Papua. It is morally, politically and legally wrong to do so. The Organization has competent bodies, such as the Special Committee on decolonization or the International Court of Justice, which should look into the matter. The Netherlands -– the former colonial Power –- should recognize its share of the responsibility in helping to resolve the situation of West Papua in a peaceful and transparent manner. †(World Leaders Adopt, 2000) But on the other hand, developing countries member like the US and UK deploring this fact that they are using the UN for their own interests and they also believe that being a powerful member of the UN they have to offset things in an news paper article published in June 16,2005 in Los Angles Times US put US reforms first and declared that â€Å"United States — a veto-holding member of the council along with Britain, France, Russia and China — believes that a bigger group would not necessarily be better†. (Farley, 2005) Another example is the Republic of Paula who surely believes that the UN will strive hard to embrace the remaining non-member nations around the globe. And in this aspect, they hope that the UN will change his rigorous attitude towards developing countries. Besides this, they are confident that these goals at a certain extent are achievable like through the help of 2000 UN reforms. They further disclosed the facts that, â€Å"The United Nations has enabled smaller, developing and least developed countries, such as my own, to contribute to world peace in our own albeit small way. Whilst there have been measurable benefits from membership of the Organization, it also has the positive scope to deliver much more equitable changes†. (World Leaders Adopt, 2000) United Nations’ Reforms However, after 2000 the United Nations met severe criticism for its operations and seemingly dependence over the United States of America. Moreover, there were issues of better managing the in-organization matters such as security, funding, and so on. Thus, a series of reform episodes started making its place in the pages of United Nations’ history. It was expedited after the Iraq invasion by the United States of America as the â€Å"oil-for-food† became the household phrase of international politics. For example, President Bush’s frequently quoted remark â€Å"America will never seek a permission slip to defend the security of our country† is something that reminds us of the absolute power days when slavery was practiced. (Schaefer and B. Kim, 2004) Thus, all these mayhem led people such as Annan to come up with some solid say that would, at least on the surface, guarantee the impartial role of the United Nations in the world and the through some solid reforms. As such Annan came up with the three major areas that needed to be redefined for the better operations of the United Nations. These were: development, security, and human right. These opened up for the public in the year 2005 and â€Å"The secretary general’s report [was] based on tow earlier studies. One was done by the committee he appointed [in 2004] to propose U. N. reforms. The second study was about how to meet goals set five years ago for reducing world poverty in half by twenty fifteen. † (Gollust, 2005) Nonetheless, by seeing the US 2000 reforms one can easily understand that the US government uses the UN for their own countries political interests to a certain extent, it is believed that America and some other dominant countries being a Vito power uses UN as a scapegoat. But on the other hand American denies these facts in a news paper article â€Å"George Mitchell, a former U. S. Senate majority leader and a co-chairman of the Task Force on the United Nations, which was created by the U. S. Congress, said he had encountered objections to American sponsorship of the reforms and had tried to combat them. Its wrong to think that reform is a favor done for the U. S. , he said. I make the argument to countries that their long-range interest is served by supporting this. While we have indicated that this is an American priority that is a conclusion that they ought to be reaching for themselves. † (Hoge, 2005) Moreover, 22nd Meeting of Chairmen/Coordinators of the Group of 77 held in Geneva in 7-9 july 1997, the chirman said that â€Å"The United Nations must carry out its mandated, comprehensive role in the economic and social areas. This includes policy analysis, consensus building, policy formulation and coordination, and delivery of technical assistance to developing countries† (22nd Meeting of Chairmen, 1997) This is an area for more study, to see the Iran ongoing nuclear scenario one would easily conceive the role of the UN in Iran nuclear technology. In this regard, The Irani government countinously accusing the UN. â€Å"Ahmadinejad said while giving interview in CBC News in Sep 19, 2006 they were transparent, peaceful and under the watchful eye of United Nations inspectors. He questioned why his country was being denied its own nuclear program when others have not†. (CBC News, 2006) In January 1992, Boutros Boutros-Ghali of Egypt assumed as the UN’s first post-Cold War Secretary General under the enormous pressure from the US and also from the lobby groups like the ICC (International Chamber of Commerce), he instantly set to work reforming the secretariat and annihilating programs that drew the acutest corporate warned by his advisors that the IMF and world bank based in Washington DC and under big influence by the United States treasury had a comparative degree of advantage over the united nation in the both macro and micro economic policy domain and that the united nation lose creditability if it for some reason did not scale back its efforts in this area. The UN secretary general’s official believes that the â€Å"UN â€Å"must change or die† and that it must reach out to â€Å"new actors† in a globalizing world, beyond the nation-state members†. (Paine, 2000) Conclusion The United Nations must abandon the double-standard and come up with the peaceful solutions to maintain the security and peace, combat problems such as environmental degradation, diseases and terrorism and guarantee a dialogue among nations. â€Å"The developing countries should be helped to reduce their foreign debt. Throughout its history, the United Nations has achieved enormous successes, including the solution of various conflicts throughout the world†. (World Leaders Adopt, 2000) In the end, I would like to say that it would be good for the world that the UN must abandon double standards between dominant and developing countries and should come up with peaceful solution for the sake both world security and safety. The first duty of the UN should assure all countries in terrorism, disease, environmental degradation and so on. Obviously, the developing countries should be giving sufficient help in unburden their foreign debts. The duty of the United Nations is to promote and develop like Somalia and other African regions. The United Nations should provide equality guarantee to underdeveloped in terms of every thing human rights to politics. References 22nd Meeting of Chairmen/Coordinators of the Group of 77 Chapters Geneva, 7-9 July 1997, Statement Of Principles on UN reform Brett D. Schaefer and Anthony B. Kim (July 9, 2004). Forging Freedom Coalitions to Promote U. S. Priorities in the United Nations CBBC Newsround | UNITED NATIONS | What is the UN? http://news. bbc. co. uk/cbbcnews/hi/find_out/guides/world/united_nations/newsid_1721000/1721851. stm Accessed, April 18, 2007 CBC News UN being abused by West: Iranian PM (Tuesday, September 19, 2006) David Shorr, March 7, 2006 World Leaders Have the UN they Deserve Ellen Paine (October 2000), The Road to the Global Compact: Corporate Power And The Battle Over global public policy at the united Nations John Gerard Ruggie (2003). The United Nations and Globalization: Patterns and Limits of Institutional Adaptation. Global Governance, 9(3), 301+ Kim R. Holmes (1993). New world disorder: A critique of the United Nations. Journal of International Affairs, 46(2), 323-340. Columbia University School of International Public Affairs Martin Schuijt (November 29, 2005). The Mother of All Coalitions. (November 30, 2005). Inter Press Service Maggie Farley, News paper article, Los Angeles Times (June 16, 2005), US Puts UN Reform First, Official Says Press Release: (8 September 2000). World Leaders Adopt ‘United Nations Millennium Declaration’ At Conclusion of Extraordinary Three-Day Summit

Thursday, November 14, 2019

Korean Buddhism :: Religion Korea Religious Essays

Korean Buddhism Buddhism was first brought from China to the Korean peninsula in the year 372 CE. At this time the dominant and traditional religion was Shamanism. While Shamanism was the belief in animism and nature-spirit worship, Buddhism expressed the idea that human beings as well as nature possess spirits and should be included in the rites of worship. This had no conflict with Shamanism and so it was easily adapted. The early elementary forms of Buddhism believed primarily in cause and effect related to the path of happiness (Buddhapia). More recent applications of Buddhist monks’ time goes to solving conflicts within different sects of Buddhism or among other religions. They also devote a great deal of time to solving doctrinal inconsistencies (Charles Muller). More traditionally a basic concept of Buddhism is that of interpenetration (t’ung) in which one must move along a path that has already been opened and just needs to be traversed. This is especially relevant in that of a sage’s mind capable of â€Å"penetrating† (understanding) the principles of things. Penetration as Charles Muller says, â€Å"Is a basic underpinning of both the Great Learning and the Doctrine of the Mean, in both of which the inner and outer aspects of the person are understood to penetrate each other such that quality of the person's inner mind is always discernible in his outer appearance†. Other important aspects of Korean Buddhism are individuality, mental foundation and ideology, philosophical reformation movement, and the pursuit of harmonization and unification. Individuality is found all throughout the Buddhist culture where there are many different approaches to meditation, studying sutras and chanting. Buddhist ideology assisted in the foundation of many aspects of Korean culture including socio-political issues. Korean Buddhists devoted their thought to philosophical reformation in the overcoming of fixed concepts. Buddhism developed different levels as each one reached its level of conceptual development. A Buddhist’s final stage comes when their teacher sees that they are fit and sends them off to become a full member of the monastic community in which they will have five days of training and lectures before the actual ceremony (Buddhapia).

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

“Ode to an Orange” by Larry Woiwode Essay

Ode to an Orange by Larry Woiwode is an evocative essay that brought many of my memories back. I became part of the story by experiencing what the author was describing. Larry incites all of our senses with the sharp description of an orange that for most of us is simply another fruit. The smell produced when we squeeze it, and its spherical orange shape gives us the sensation of being there. This essay made me think about the different ways we look at an orange. Most of us are accustomed to the conventional way of seeing an orange. However, for some people an orange is a lot more than merely a fruit. The author emphasizes in the importance of an orange for him. One example of this emphasis is at line 10 when he mentions; â€Å"There was no depth of degradation that we wouldn’t descend to in order to get one†. This tells me that the author not only liked oranges, but that he was passionate about enjoying the flavor and texture of an orange. I think that the author feels in this way because the orange brings some of his most memorable times back. He clearly remembers the way her mother used to tease him and his brother. He emphasizes this by repeating his thoughts in the end. I enjoyed reading this story because I can relate with what the author writes. In the summers of my childhood, there was no better flavor than the originated by a cold orange juice. After reading this story, I felt a strong desire to buy some oranges and make a glass of cold juice, and the fact that is summer now; greatly complements it. Finally, this story has made me more aware of the ordinary things we have around us. Everything is an interesting topic for writing, and as the book mentions, we need to be more perceptive with our environment. Larry has a unique way to make us feel inside the story. He reminds me that before theaters and television was writing. We only need our imagination to create the most beautiful stories.

Saturday, November 9, 2019

Climate Change Lab Report

I. Introductiona. In this lab, the question being investigated is, â€Å"Has climate changed over time?† b. The hypothesis is, â€Å"If CO2 levels affect climate, then the climate has changed overtime because of the increased greenhouse effect caused by higher levels of CO2 emissions.† c. Variables:1. Independent Variable: Amount of CO2 2. Dependent Variable: Climate changeII. Background InformationClimate is the weather pattern in an area over long period of time. Climate is more focused on the long term rather than day to day or week to week changes. Due to uneven heating of the Earth’s surface, climate changes depending on where the location is on the planet. Factors such as incoming solar energy, Earth’s rotation, and air and water movements all affect an area’s climate. Different levels of these factors influence the biomes on the planet.The current climate change is the warming of Earth’s atmosphere. Climate change has happened naturall y all throughout history, but never to the degree that it is now. Average global temperature and CO2 levels are rising due to human activity on the planet such as increased agriculture, raising livestock, and burning fossil fuels. Now it is known that climate change is happening for a many reasons. Scientists studying ice cores, seafloor sediment, and tree rings are all seeing how the climate change is affecting the planet.Even if immediate action is taken, there would still be lasting implications on the entire planet. Things such as rising sea levels, health implications, and severe droughts could all happen because of an increase atmosphere temperature. While some areas would be subjected to scorching temperatures, other would be plunged underwater. Warmer climate would allow for a longer breeding season for microbes and parasites. Action to stop climate change  needs to happen as soon as possible before it could get worse.III. Data AnalysisAfter looking at the data, it is clea r that the levels of CO2 in the atmosphere directly affect the temperature of Earth’s climate. As the graphs show, the higher the levels of CO2 in the atmosphere, the higher the average global air temperature is.Graph 1 shows how the rise in carbon dioxide has caused the average global air temperature to rise. For example, in 1965 the CO2 part per million (ppm) was roughly at 318ppm, and later in 2005 the CO2 levels were at about 374ppm. This clearly shows how the CO2 ppm levels have risen over time due to various human activity on the planet.In Graph 2, the average global temperature over time is shown. This graph shows how the average global temperature anomaly has risen dramatically over the course of about 120 years. In 1900 the average global temperature anomaly was -0.1, while in 2000 is was almost at 0.6.In Graph 3, the relationship between temperature and carbon dioxide is shown over very long periods of time on Earth. From 400,000 years ago until present, the lines m apping out the temperature and CO2 levels in the atmosphere have stayed almost overlapping each other the entire time. It is also shown how the CO2 levels have affected the temperature. The CO2 levels have always changed first, falling or rising, with the temperature following that same trend almost immediately after.In Chart 1, tree core data over time is shown. The growth of trees is greatly impacted by the climate that they grow in, and with warmer temperatures due to a warmer climate they will have a longer growing season allowing for thicker rings. For example, in 1600-1649 the average ring thickness on a tree has 0.24cm. Later, in 1900-1960 the average ring thickness from the same tree was 0.37cm.IV. ConclusionThe original hypothesis stated that if CO2 levels affect climate, then the climate has changed overtime because of the increased greenhouse effect caused by higher levels of CO2 emissions. The data gathered supports and accepts this hypothesis. It is shown by multiple st udies how both the CO2 parts per million and the average global temperature has risen over time. As the graphs show, the level of CO2 in the atmosphere has a direct impact on the average global temperature, causing the temperature to rise and fall as the levels of CO2 rise and fall.This lab is very important to the planet, and the everyday lives of everyone on the planet. Climate change has an impact on all life on Earth, and even just a one degree change in average global temperature could end with catastrophic results. Even with immediate action, there will still be lasting implications on the planet. People can no longer ignore the changing climate, or pretend that it’s not going to affect them. Humans have had a huge negative impact on the climate, and for the benefit of not only themselves but for life as we know it, such impacts need to be reversed.

Thursday, November 7, 2019

The eNotes Blog Happy Birthday, Pablo Neruda Quotes about Life (andLove)

Happy Birthday, Pablo Neruda Quotes about Life (andLove) Born in Chile on July 12, 1904, we recognize Pablo Neruda 112 years later as a political activist and eclectic poet. As a Communist holding several Chilean governmental posts, Neruda  faced danger when Radical Party presidential candidate Gabriel Gonzlez Videla turned against the Communist Party. After the Communist Party was banned from Chile over the course of the next year, he traveled around Europe whilst in exile and began writing. One of his most famous works, Tonight I Can Write, was highly controversial  for being sexually explicit. In contrast, Nerudas Ode to My Socks is a great example of his  odes that celebrate and praise everyday objects. Head on over to to  ask a question about Pablo Neruda, or browse answered questions that others have already asked! Sources and further reading: /topics/tonight-can /topics/pablo-neruda-adam-feinstein /topics/pablo-neruda

Tuesday, November 5, 2019

Using Readability Formulas

Using Readability Formulas Any readability formula is one of many methods of measuring or predicting the difficulty level of text by analyzing sample passages. A conventional readability formula measures average word length and sentence length to provide a grades and Observations, below. Five popular readability formulas are the Dale-Chall readability formula (Dale Chall 1948), the Flesch readability formula (Flesch 1948), the FOG index readability formula (Gunning 1964), the Fry readability graph (Fry, 1965), and the Spache readability formula (Spache, 1952). Examples and Observations: Because researchers have been examining readability formulas for almost 100 years, the research is comprehensive and reflects both the positive and negative aspects of formulas. Essentially, research firmly supports that sentence length, and word difficulty provide viable mechanisms for estimating difficulty, but they are imperfect. . . .As with many tools that work with normally developing readers, readability formulas may require some tweaking when the target population includes struggling readers, learning-disabled readers, or English language learners. When readers have little or no background knowledge, readability formula results may underestimate the difficulty of the material for them, particularly for English language learners. (Heidi Anne E. Mesmer, Tools for Matching Readers to Texts: Research-Based Practices. The Guilford Press, 2008) Readability Formulas and Word Processors Today many widely used word processors offer readability formulas along with spell checkers and grammar checkers. Microsoft Word provides a Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level. Many teachers use the Lexile Framework, a scale from 0 to 2000 that is based on average sentence length and average word frequency of texts found in an extensive database, the American Heritage Intermediate Corpus (Carroll, Davies, Richman, 1971). The Lexile Framework circumvents the need to perform ones own calculations. (Melissa Lee Farrall, Reading Assessment: Linking Language, Literacy, and Cognition. John Wiley Sons, 2012) Readability Formulas and Textbook Selection There are probably more than 100 readability formulas currently in use today. They are widely used by teachers and administrators as a way of predicting if a text is written at a level appropriate for the students who will use it. While we can say with relative ease that readability formulas are fairly reliable, we need to be cautious in using them. As Richardson and Morgan (2003) point out, readability formulas are useful when textbook selection committees need to make a decision but have no students available to try out the materials on, or when teachers want to assess materials that students may be asked to read independently. Basically, a readability formula is a quick and easy way to determine the grade level of written material. However, we must remember that it is only one measure, and the grade level obtained is only a predictor and thus may not be exact (Richardson and Morgan, 2003). (Roberta L. Sejnost and Sharon Thiese, Reading and Writing Across Content Areas, 2nd ed. Cor win Press, 2007) The Misuse of Readability Formulas as Writing Guides One source of opposition to readability formulas is that they are sometimes misused as writing guides. Because formulas tend to have just two major inputs- word length or difficulty, and sentence length- some authors or editors have taken just these two factors and modified writing. They sometimes end up with a bunch of short choppy sentences and moronic vocabulary and say that they did it because of a readability formula. Formula writing, they sometimes call it. This is a misuse of any readability formula. A readability formula is intended to be used after the passage is written to find out for whom it is suitable. It is not intended as a writers guide.(Edward Fry, Understanding the Readability of Content Area Texts. Content Area Reading and Learning: Instructional Strategies, 2nd ed., edited by Diane Lapp, James Flood, and Nancy Farnan. Lawrence Erlbaum, 2004)Dont bother with the readability statistics. . . . The averages of sentences per paragraph, words per sentence, and characte rs per word have little relevance. The Passive Sentences, Flesch Reading Ease, and Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level are computed statistics that dont accurately assess how easy or hard the document is to read. If you want to know whether a document is hard to understand, ask a colleague to read it. (Ty Anderson and Guy Hart-Davis, Beginning Microsoft Word 2010. Springer, 2010) Also Known As: readability metrics, readability test

Sunday, November 3, 2019

Changes in media and its effects on personal, social and work lives Essay

Changes in media and its effects on personal, social and work lives - Essay Example However, all this came to change with the fast development of technology. Before we knew it, we had television, and all this changed everything because we could not only hear the news but could also see who was presenting it as well as videos of the news itself. It has indeed been a privilege for me to live long enough to see the development of media from its infancy to where it is today. Question: What are your feelings concerning the development of the Internet and social networking? Granddad: it is quite fascinating how the technology for transmitting media has developed and how fast that development has been. The things that we used to think were impossible have now become reality and this is something quite extraordinary. The Internet is a technology that I did not become aware of until sometime in the mid nineties when it was first introduced to me. I found it to be most useful because I could use email to send information, which I would have otherwise sent by mail, and I could find information instantly online, without having to go to a library, as used to be the case. I have come to adapt to this new technology like a fish in water, because it has made my life all much easier, especially now that I do not move around as much as I used to. I am an avid user of social networking sites such as Facebook, where I have come to encounter plenty of information as well as made many friends. I have also been able to rekindle old relationships with people whom I knew when I was younger, but life put us in different paths. Furthermore, the different sources of news have ensured that any biased news can be detected. I personally prefer watching news online and during the Iraq War, recently, I used to watch Al Jazeera and BBC to get a balanced picture of the news. Question: Which media do you think has managed to survive way into the modern times? Granddad: In my opinion, I believe that television, and most especially cartoons, have not lost the charm that kept peopl e hooked to them. When I was young, I used to love the Disney cartoons and I followed them every chance I got. I still see the same fascination in cartoons among kids today and this, I believe, is continuity. Personally, I am still a huge fan of cartoons because they not only remind me of my younger days but also make me laugh, something that I have to admit, has become extremely rare for me in other forms of entertainment. Question: What was the relationship between politicians and media, and has this relationship changed? Granddad: In previous decades, it was extremely difficult to find politicians who were open with any form of media. In fact, media was always treated with suspicion because of the belief that their main purpose was to destroy political careers by creating scandals. This, I believe, has changed since many politicians have come to embrace the media to further their own political careers. President Obama in the United States is an example of this new trend among pol iticians. He has used the media so well that he has managed to maintain his popularity where other presidents would have fallen from grace. I may add that media has come to influence change in society because without it, the Americans would not have been able to elect a black president. Essay Media has experienced plenty of changes, especially from the mid twentieth century to the present day. It has not only led to the development of better means of communication between people but has

Thursday, October 31, 2019

In what ways do changes of administration in Washington affect Essay

In what ways do changes of administration in Washington affect continuity in US policy in the Asia-Pacific - Essay Example If the heads of state had come from similar parties it is easier to ensure continuity of policies. Otherwise, the chances of continuity are slim unless the next president is not one for party politics such as Obama’s case. So as to have a clearer view on how administration changes tend to affect continuity in the Asia-Pacific area, this essay henceforth aims to scrutinize the ways in which the change of political leaders may affect policy continuity. Administration changes can affect policies whenever party politics take precedence over continuity. It has been known that Democrats and Republicans have contrasting values. While the former espouses liberal views and political methods, the latter’s beliefs on and approach to policy debates is conservative and traditional. Party affiliation in the US has a â€Å"predominant influence† on the President and his administration. Jim Leach, former chairman of the US House of Representatives Subcommittee on Asian and Pacific Affairs, considers â€Å"the interplay between the Republican and Democratic parties and within each of these parties† as responsible for adding another coat of complexity to the US system and its policies in Asia-Pacific. For comparison’s sake, the Democratic administration of President Bill Clinton was markedly different from that of his successor Bush Jr. Though rocked with scandals irrelevant to policy-making (i.e. Monica Lewinsky affai r), there was at least a shortage of war. As Rozoff (2009) quipped in his write-up, â€Å"when Clinton lied no Americans died.† On one hand, the Bush Presidency had enough Republican policies on war to sacrifice thousands of American soldiers. The Democratic Policy Committee condemned such policies as â€Å"misguided† for having â€Å"severely tarnished Americas reputation in Iraq and around the world† and  undermined â€Å"U.S.-led reconstruction efforts†

Tuesday, October 29, 2019

World War I Diaries Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 1

World War I Diaries - Essay Example Germany failed to attach because of its exhausted manpower reserves. However,, the German home front revolted forming a new German government which signed a conditional surrender called the armistice, terminating the war in November, 11, 1918. The world’s great powers were divided into allies involving the United Kingdom, France and Russia, and the central powers consisting of the triple alliance of Germany, Italy and Austria Hungary (Lymann 13-17). World War 1 was peculiarly a current affair. It was the first major contest of arms fought by large, centrally organised nation states since the dawn of the new revolution. Germany, Italy and Austria-Hungary were creations of the nineteenth century. The mechanized production of goods in vast quantities came from Europe and facilitated the pace of technological innovation. The scale of conflict heightened and fighting engulfed all the main states of the European continent as well as Britain, French and German imperial colonialists in Africa, Asia and pacific islands. It also raged the high sea sucked in the colonial peoples from Australia and Indochina to India and Canada and forced the distant and isolationist united states to undertake arms. Modern technology put unprecedented lethal arsenals at the army’s disposal: artillery that could propel explosives from distances up to seventy-five miles, poison guns, airplanes, dreadnoughts and submarines. Fought mainly by soldiers in trenches, the war saw an estimated death of 10 million military men (Browne and Snead 560). It was a world war battle fought between September 12-15, 1918, which involved the American expenditory force and French groups under US commander John J. Pershing against German troops. The Americans expenditory force consisted of 14 divisions (550,000) soldiers while the German fifth army and French army was made up of 10 and four divisions respectively. The United States army air service played a

Sunday, October 27, 2019

Current Trends Of Information Technology

Current Trends Of Information Technology EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This report has been produced to examine the current trends of information technology with regard to understand the products and services the market is offering and changes in the industry. IT infrastructure generally important in all organizations, whereas the changing of the market is fast, therefore companies and organizations need to be updated to keep pace with the changes. Besides that, issues and challenges that an organization face couldnt be neglect which it may be the major problem for decision making. As an emerging technology and business paradigm, cloud computing has taken commercial computing by storm. To avoid elimination and stay competitive, basically cost or money will plays the most important role in an organization. Keep track with the updated hardware and software will always affected an organizations budget, the change is fast and its costly. Money is the main obstruct. Understanding a technical area as complex as cloud computing is not easy and requires identifying its fundamental characteristics. Clear concepts and terminology into cloud computing help but do not entirely solve the problem of how to design, develop and adopt a cloud computing system. The latest trend of IT world is cloud computing, which allows user of an organization to download software from the web. It generally saves a lot of money from purchasing new software. This report examine and investigate what is cloud computing about and what is the benefits of owning cloud computing services. To own the service we need to know what the service is about, and also understand how the service or system works. Cloud computing platforms provide easy access to a companys high performance computing and storage infrastructure through web services. It is a new method that shares basic framework. The basic principles of cloud computing is to make the computing be assigned in a great number of distributed computers, rather than local computer or remoter server. The running of the enterprises data center is just like Internet. This makes the enterprise use the resource in the application that is needed, and access computer and storage system according to the requirement. Cloud computing comes into the market is for every user convenient. But of course there are still a lot of matters need to be take care of like, the budget and size of company, whether is suitable to use cloud computing. Even though cloud computing is beneficial but will also examine the companys need of the service. Information moves with incredible speed across and between networks and the cloud, making sensitive information challenging to track and locate. And with an IT infrastructure that is virtual and shared via the cloud, organisations must learn new ways to throw light on to risks, threats and compliance performance. This report introduces the background and principle of cloud computing, the character, style and actuality. This report also introduces the application field of cloud computing, such as, it do not need users high level equipment, so it reduces the users cost. It provides secure and dependable data storage center. It can realize data share through different equipments and puts forward some solutions, and discusses the future of cloud computing. Cloud computing is a computing style that provides power referenced with IT as a service. Users can enjoy the service even he knows nothing about the technology of cloud computing and the professional knowledge in this field and the power to control it. TABLE OF CONTENT Page EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 3 INTRODUCTION 5 IT INFRASTRUCTURE ECOSYSTEM 6 2.1 IT INFRASTRUCTURES 6 2.2 ISSUES AND CHALLENGES 7 CLOUD COMPUTING 8 3.1 CLOUD COMPUTING CURRENT TRENDS 8 3.2 CLOUD COUMPTING SOLUTION 8 3.3BENEFITS AND COSTS OF CLOUD COMPUTING 9 COMPETITIVE FORCE FOR IT INFRASTRUCTURE 9 4.1 IT INFRASTRUCTURE 10 4.2 STRATEGY FOR CLOUD COMPUTING 10 CONCLUSION 11 REFERENCES 12 APPENDICES APPENDIX 1- JOURNAL 14 1. Introduction Petaling Tin Berhad is a progressive property development and investment group listed on the Main Market Of bursa Malaysia, with major ongoing development projects and exclusive land banks in the Klang Valley hub and parts of Selangor, Negeri Sembilan and future high-end resort themed development at Karambunai, Sabah. The group had proven track records in master-planned residential communities, commercial township center and industrial developments for discerning businesses (Petaling Tin Berhad 2010). At Petaling Tin Berhad, we continue to strengthen our core in property development, whilst diversifying into property related businesses such as property investment, management and construction. Today, Petaling Tin Berhad had net assets worth in excess of RM350 million. The Groups continuing strategies include:- Building on a solid foundation of assets by making informed and strategic decisions. Pursuing innovative property products by responding to changes/evolution in needs of consumers. Continuous relationships with our customers, business partners, investors, agencies and communities. The group has few listed companies under the banner and more than ten subsidiaries. Every single company is allocated with different area of responsibility, either in property development or investment. For Karambunai, with cost of RM3 billion eco-nature resort at Nexus Karambunai, Sabah is the next upcoming mega project. The Government will allocate RM100 million to support the tourism industry. With lots of project coming and subsidiaries located separately, groups employees rely on the Internet either to communicate or share updated information. The Malaysian Government initiations via the Economic Transformation Programme (ETP) coupled with continued implementations of stimulus packagers augur well for the country, brought with it major property development plains particular within Greater KL, certain indentified infrastructure and tourism projects. The property sector shall continue resilient, moving forward barring unforeseen circumstances, the Group continues to focus of its core business of property development, and shall endeavour to roll-out future planned developments to generate higher sustainable revenue, with continuing effort to optimize the Groups performance. The group currently focuses its commitment contributions along the core themes and concept of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). As a responsible property developer, the Group adopts and promotes Green Environment approaches and practices in all its property development activities. The Group works closely with its business associates and partners, with emphasis placed on using resources efficiently and effectively whilst adopting environmental best practices whenever possible. Providing a safe, secure, healthy and conductive workplace for employees is a continuous feature of the Groups CSR practice as we recognized the importance of our human resources and work force and their contribution. For the financial year, the Group recorded a higher turnover of RM19.4 million as compared to previous year and also recorded a higher loss before tax. The higher pre-tax loss for the year was mainly due to the write back of profit from the property subsidiary company, mitigated by net gains from changes in fair values of investment properties of the Group. 2. IT Infrastructure Ecosystem 2.1 IT Infrastructures 2.1.1 Internet Platforms Linux is the Internet hardware server at the moment for our group. Internet platforms overlap with, and must relate to, the firms general networking infrastructure and hardware and software platforms (Laudon Laudon 2010). 2.1.2 Computer Hardware Platforms In 2008, U.S. firms spend about $150 billion on computer hardware. This component includes client machines and server machines. The server market is complex. Our group is using HP and IBM, which are the top firms in the market that concentrated in. 2.1.3 Operating Systems Platforms At the client level, 95% of PCs in the world use Microsoft Windows operating system to manage the resources and activities of the computer and our group is one in the category. We are also comprised with Linux as our secondary operating system, which is inexpensive and reliable. 2.1.4 Enterprise Software Applications In our group, software for enterprise application is treated as components of IT infrastructure. The software we are using calls IFCA, its platform one of Malaysias top developers software to fully automate operation. IFCA is paid licensed software that requires renew every year, it is a generally use to update the company whole projects. 2.1.5 Networking/Telecommunications Windows Server is predominantly used as local area network operating system, followed by Linux and Unix. Many local area networks, as well as wide area enterprise networks, use TCP/IP protocol suite as standard. In Malaysia, generally network uses TM. TM is the largest telecommunications service company that offer voice and data connectivity, wide area networking and Internet access. 2.1.6 Consultants and System Integrators Software integration means ensuring the new infrastructure works with the firms older, so-called legacy systems and ensuring the new elements of infrastructure work with one another. This is not necessary for the group while its costly. 2.1.7 Data Management and Storage There are few choices for enterprise database management software, which is responsible for organizing and managing date so that it can be efficiently accessed and used. We are engage with SQL Server by Microsoft, which is one of the leading database software providers. 2.2 Issues and Challenges The biggest challenges for IT professionals are applications, integration, financial and cultural (Kennedy 2009). Even though we have well maintain and established infrastructures for the group but there are still some issues we need to emphasize on like security, connection problems, management cost control, employees knowledge and training, updated hardware and software, data storage and documentation. 2.2.1 The Application Challenges Keeping up with all of the latest technology that is released on a constant basis is another problem. Therefore current applications somehow is not the best, for example connection problem and security issue in Malaysia still need long way to improve on it, sometimes the latest offer in the market might not get upon expectation. 2.2.2 The Integration Challenges Consolidating and integrating multiple finance data warehouses into a single, unified data warehouse is something IT still struggles with. We are property development company, there are too many documentation and process either among external like lawyer firm and banker, or within internal between finance, project and marketing department. Therefore IT department need to ensure everything is going smooth to avoid any hesitation. 2.2.3 The Financial Challenges Financially tight for IT budget is difficult in maintaining information infrastructure under the current budget pressures. Doing more with less continues to be a priority, or as one participant put a fine point on it, getting more results with a big budget reduction. Moreover, these increased expectations are coupled with the reality of lower IT budgets. Providing more service for less money will be a reality well all have to deal with. 2.2.4 The Cultural Challenges Cultural difference play important role in an organization, religious differences and age differences will also play a greater role. However, using them to our advantage will be the challenge. Other than that, implementing change, keeping up with new developments are challenges for the group as well while the products in IT market is changing in a fast pace. Especially giving employees training for new information is not easy task whey they are already get use with the current hardware or software. Thomas C. Staab outlined challenges facing Information Technology leaders in the years to come; he sees challenges based upon the experience and insight hes gained and other technology leaders around the globe (Rosberg 2008). 3. Cloud Computing Cloud computing refers to a model of computing where firms and individuals obtain computing power and software applications over the internet, rather than purchasing their own hardware and software (Laudon Laudon 2010). The cloud computing service model involves the provision, by a service provider, of large pools of high performance computing resources and high-capacity storage devices that are shared among end users as required (Vaquero 2009). The service providers offering may also extend to the software applications required by the end user. Cloud service model requires a high-speed network to provide connection between the end user and the service providers infrastructure. Cloud computing potentially offers an overall financial benefit, in that end users share a large, centrally managed pool of storage and computing resources, rather than owning and managing their own systems (Kondo 2009). The end user in turn sees convenience benefits from having data and services available from any location, from having data backups centrally managed, from the availability of increased capacity when needed, and from usage-based charging (Weiss 2007 Hayes 2008). 3.1 Cloud Computing Current Trends Datapipe, a provider of managed services and infrastructure for IT and cloud computing, is predicting that 2011 will be the year when industry giants from across the spectrum-including major financial institutions, pharmaceuticals and retailers-will migrate major internal and external IT systems to the cloud. (Sowinski 2010). Amazon was first to use a cloud-computing model for their business and now is the leader in providing cloud services to other businesses. Entrepreneurs are exploiting Amazons Web services, Microsofts Windows Azure hosting platform and other cloud services in order to start up companies because of the zero capital equipment requirements. Payment is by credit card and you pay as you go (Bell 2011), examples like iTunes, Dropbox, and HealthVault; which lets you store and share your medical information. The idea of cloud computing is to make all the information and services run in data centers around the world available via the Web. These new approaches come along roughly every decade and promise to make computers cheaper and more accessible. 3.2 Cloud Computing Solution A number of organizations are already hosting and/or offering cloud computing services. Examples include Google Docs, Amazons Elastic Compute Cloud and Simple Storage services, Microsofts Windows Azure Platform, IBMs Smart Business Services,, and WebEx (Baliga 2011). Amazon is on the Internet the biggest online retail merchant, everyday is bearing the massive network transaction, and simultaneously Amazon also provides the cloud computing service platform for the independent software development personnel as well as the developer. Amazon calculates theirs cloud the platform to be called elastic compute cloud (EC2), is most early provides the long distance cloud to calculate the platform service the company. Amazon own elastic computation cloud establishment in the platform which the company interior large-scale colony calculates, but the user may operate through the elastic computation cloud network contact surface in the cloud calculates each instance. Amazon elastic compute cloud comes by the named Amazon Web services existing platform development. Amazon Web Services mainly is composed by 4 core services: Simple Storage Service; Elastic Compute Cloud; Simple Queuing Service as well as still occupied at present test stage SimpleDB (Zhang 2010). 3.3 Benefits and Costs of Cloud Computing Cloud services will ultimately save organizations money; cloud services are succeeding in delivering key benefits to the supply chain in the long run. In the cost modelling of cloud services, to offset the initial cost of acquisition of cloud services against existing system licensing and asset costs they will no longer have to pay (Shacklett 2010). Cloud services are less expensive solutions than internal systems, moreover the best solutions for what a given business is striving to achieve in a given business scenario. Cloud computing also allows users to automatically store and back up data without the risk of losing the information in a server crash. It provides organisations with sufficient control over cloud security and compliance to adapt to any type of workload, even mission-critical ones. And giving IT teams the ability to directly inspect and monitor conditions in private, public, or hybrid clouds so they can base their trust on first-hand observations, not just outside Attestations (Patterson 2011). Cloud allows organization to move away from managing their own data centers to focusing their attention and their resources-financial and human-on their core competencies. Cloud is enabling businesses to respond much more effectively to changes in demand. Cloud networks are evolving, linking organizations through complex, multiparty processes into single, virtual organizations (Giniat 2011). Cloud computing do not need high quality equipment for user, and it is easy to use. Cloud computing provides dependable and secure data storage center to avoid data loss or virus problems (Chen 2010). User saved the equipment and maintenance cost with the integrity virtual machine movement controls by user. 4. Competitive Forces Model for IT Infrastructure There has been a growing trend to use off-site infrastructure resources to manage the company IT needs. This has opened up a number of options for large and small companies because it allows them to quickly scale their infrastructure to meet their changing needs, adopt new technology as it comes available, and control all the expenditures related to the IT department (Dell 2011). Cloud computing companies are making it possible to be more efficient, flexible, and cost effective than ever before, it is a very safe, secure way to store data and manage various applications. Cloud services will help organizations enter the age of utility computing in an incremental manner (Hurwitz 2010). 4.1 IT Infrastructure Infrastructure as a service allows us to pay for the things we need. We wont be spending money on physical servers or storage space and wont have to make new technology purchases based on the possibility of growth. We will be able move faster when our IT infrastructure is scalable and flexible by keep up with the recent changes of new technology. This is good from our standpoint, we have no desire to buy and maintain lots of hardware and software. If we can let someone else look after the basic technology, we can more focus on future development. With cloud computing, we have come full circle: the efficiencies of a centralized computing infrastructure that can be easily accessed via the Internet are just too compelling to ignore. Our group doesnt own any servers, with everything else off in a cloud, and we only have the basic productivity software on our personal computers. Recently Google joined with IBM to promote cloud computing, the idea of cloud computing its sufficiently compelling that in large measure it already exists (Weber 2008). We use Google, for search and for analytics and for document sharing, among other things. We are established developer in the industry for more than few decades; we should upgrade our IT infrastructure to be more competitive in the market. Especially over the years, we have too many documents to sort out, but to list systematically is difficult. Lots of burden will be reducing if with the assistance of cloud service. Furthermore it can simplify the documentations between us with lawyer and banker. We can retrieve and trace every document from the web rather than waiting dispatch to send or collect, or need to search the document in the storage room. And also can download s oftware from the web anytime without any hassle while waiting for IT personnel. 4.2 Strategy for Cloud Computing The first type of resources is infrastructure resources, which include computing power, storage, and machine provisioning. For example, Amazon EC2 provides web service interface to easily request and configure capacity online. Xdrive Box service provides online storage to users. Microsoft SkyDrive provides free storage service, with an integrated offline and online model that keeps privacy related files on hard drives, and enables people to access those files remotely (Zhang Zhou 2009). Infrastructure as a service refers to the sharing of hardware resources for executing services, typically using virtualization technology. With Infrastructure as a Service, potentially multiple users use existing resources. In Platform as a Service, the offering includes software execution environment, such as application server. In the Software as a Service, complete applications are hosted on the Internet so that e.g. your word processing software isnt installed locally on your PC anymore but runs on a server in the network and is accessed through a web browser (Ohlman 2009). Through storage as a service, users can outsource their data storage requirements to the cloud (Buyya 2008). All processing is performed on the users PC, which may have only a solid state drive, and the users primary data storage is in the cloud. Data files may include documents, photographs, or videos. Files stored in the cloud can be accessed from any computer with an Internet connection at any time (Kondo 2009). In addition, after a user uploads a file to the cloud, the user can grant read and/or modification privileges to other users. One example of storage as a service is the Amazon Simple Storage service. Conclusion Infrastructure management is becoming more important in a dynamic business environment, the right business infrastructure can help optimize IT efficiency, minimize costs, and help organization respond quickly to industry changes. Why we need cloud computing? It is to utilize the vacant resources of computer, increase the economic efficiency through improving utilization rate, and decrease the equipment energy consumption. Among the many IT giants driven by trends in cloud computing has not doubtful. It gives almost everyone has brought good news. For enterprises, cloud computing is worthy of consideration and try to build business systems as a way for businesses in this way can undoubtedly bring about lower costs, higher profits and more choice; for large scale industry, After the financial turmoil will be the cost of infrastructure for large-scale compression seems likely; developers, when in the face of cloud computing, can effectively improve own capacity, cloud computing will bring a revolutionary change in the Internet. Cloud computing announced a low-cost super-computing services to provide the possibility, while there are a large number of manufacturers behind, there is no doubt that cloud computing has a bright future. Certainly, there are many of challenges we need to face, or continue to face, in the unknown coming days. And as we face these challenges proactively, with open minds, and by embracing change, working these things to our advantage, the opportunities well find will ultimately result in our success. If our group depend on someone else for the technology and that can limit our flexibility and creativity. In fact, the personal computer itself arose because the old model of business computing, in which companies had big mainframes and everyone connected to them via dumb terminals, was enormously frustrating for the people sitting at those dumb terminals. They could only do what they were authorized to do. They were dependent on the computer administrators to give them permission or fix problems. They had no way of staying up on the latest innovations. The personal computer was a rebellion against the tyranny of centralized computing operations. Security problem of the exposure to the web still resolve while the user will manage and monitor everything. Cloud computing will help the group save money in the long run, and to be more productive when documentations are done within a faster period. And also provide employees with a greater IT environment with always getting the most updated software in the market. With cloud computing, the aim is to hide the complexity of IT infrastructure management from its users. At the same time, cloud computing platforms provide massive scalability, reliability, high performance, and specifiable configurability. These capabilities are provided at relatively low costs compared to dedicated infrastructures. Cloud computing is making it possible to separate the process of building an infrastructure for service provisioning from the business of providing end user services. It will cut complexity, improve flexibility and make IT more strategic to business there is a misconception about the cloud that the Cloud is cheaper than traditional IT. References Baliga J., Ayre R.W.A., Hinton K. 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