Monday, September 30, 2019

Kaplan Higher Education Essay

1) You have been asked to design a LAN with operation over a distance of about 100m. Compare and contrast twisted pair cable, coaxial cable, fiber-optics, and wireless for this application. You should create a table or flow chart which would facilitate choosing between these options depending on circumstances. The table or flow chart should be submitted as part of your document. You may not submit a separate file Unshielded twisted pair Fiber optic Coaxial cable Medium Length Baseband: 10/100/1000mbps (CAT 3/5/5e/6) EMI Wavelength (nm): 850/1300 RG Type RG58BU/CU RG59/BU Protection: Shielded/Unshielded Max. Attn.(dB/Km): 3.0/0.9 Conductor Type TC CCS Maximum Segment Length(Thicknet) 500m Min. Bandwidth (Mhz*Km): 200/500 Sheath PVC Cost: Relatively inexpensive Velocity Ratio 666 Toxicity: Plenum/Non Plenum 2) Rank the following five media examples in order from highest data transmission speed to lowest data transmission speed: twisted pair, coaxial cable, fiber-optic cable, microwave, and satellite. 3) a) Satellite b) Fiber Optic c) Coaxial cable d) Microwave e) Twisted pair 4) An entrepreneur is interested in establishing her own world-wide satellite radio infrastructure and has requested your help. Describe and justify the infrastructure that you would develop. Be sure to include the number of satellites needed, the orbits employed for those satellites, and the type and frequency of transmission utilized. a) She will need a multiplexed Earth station satellite system. The ground station accepts input from multiple sources and in some fashion interweaves the data streams, either by assigning different frequencies to different signals or by allowing different signals to take turns transmitting. With frequencies about 2-4 GHz 5) A typical signal sequence in a synchronous connection contains a significant amount of information in addition to just the intended message or data. Identify each of the blocks commonly employed and utilize an analogy to sending a physical package to explain what each block does. a) An analogy of this type of connection would be the transmission of a large text document. Before the document is transferred across the synchronous line, it is first broken into blocks of sentences or paragraphs. The blocks are then sent over the communication link to the remote site. With other  transmission modes, the text is organized into long strings of letters (or characters) that make up the words within the sentences and paragraphs. These characters are sent over the communication link one at a time and reassembled at the remote location. 6) For the network that you have chosen to characterize for this class, identify the primary types of media employed. Be sure to include both how the computers individually connect into the network devices as well as how network devices interconnect and how the connection to the Internet is achieved. Briefly explain the purpose in the network of each type of media employed and identify at least one alternative media which could also fulfill this purpose. a) The network that I have chosen for this class is a Peer to peer network. I will have four computers, one printer/copy/fax machine, and they will be connected with an Ethernet cord and through a local area network. This network is designed for a small business office. References Newman, C. (2014, January 10). Help – AIX 7.1 Information Center. Help – AIX 7.1 Information Center. Retrieved , from synchronous. (2014, March 9). Merriam-Webster. Retrieved , from Synchronous and Asynchronous Communication Tools – Articles – Resources – ASAE. (n.d.). Synchronous and Asynchronous Communication Tools – Articles – Resources – ASAE. Retrieved , from

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Culture and Hipster Central Dogma Essay

Hipster is a subculture of young (15 – 25), urban middle class adults and older teenagers that appeared in the 1990s.The subculture is associated with non-mainstream lifestyle. They value independent thinking, progressive politics, creativity, intelligence and non-mainstream fashion sensibility. Most of them can be found living in the big cities like New York, Chicago, and San Francisco. Also â€Å"hipsterism† is often intertwined with distinct fashion sensibilities .Hipsters reject the culturally-ignorant attitudes of mainstream consumers, and are often be seen wearing vintage, tight jeans, old-school sneakers, and often thick rimmed glasses. Men and women hipsters have similar androgynous hair styles that include combinations of dirty shag cuts and asymmetric side-swept bangs. Such styles are the work of creative stylists at urban salons, and are usually not mainstream. Despite the misconception made ​​on the external image, hipsters tend to be well educ ated in sciences, which require certain creative analytical thinking abilities. This leads to the fact that they find themselves in creative works, such as music, art, and fashion industries. It is a myth that most hipsters are unemployed and live off of their parent’s trust funds. Hipsters shun mainstream, It is part of the hipster central dogma not to be influenced by mainstream advertising and media. This is tends to only promote ethnocentric ideals of beauty, the concepts of androgyny and feminism have influenced hipster culture, where hipster men are often as thin as the women they date. Women view the muscular, athletic and other male ideals as symbols of their oppression, sexism, and misogyny. Likewise, culturally-vapid sorority-type girls with fake blond hair, overly tanned skin, and â€Å"Britney Spears tube-tops† are not seen as attractive by cultured hipster males who instead see them as symbols of female insecurity, low self-esteem, and lack of cultural intelligence and independent thinking. Likewise, girls with fake blond hair and overly tanned skin are not seen as attractive by cultured hipster males who instead see them as symbols of female insecurity, low self-esteem, and lack of cultural intelligence and independent thinking. There are many interracial couples in hipster subculture because they are very racially open-minded. Although hipsters are conformists within their own subculture, in comparison to the much larger mainstream mass they are pioneers latest cultural trends and ideals. For example many bands have become successful and known to mainstream audiences only because hipsters first found and listened to them as early-adopters of new culture. Once certain concepts of fashion and music have reached mainstream audiences, hipsters move on to something new and improved. Once something from fashion and music have reached mainstream audiences, hipsters move on to something new. Because of the rise of various online photo-blog and social networking sites, insights into urban hipster culture is reaching sheltered suburban audiences at an exponential rate. Cultural â€Å"norms† have been deconstructed by hipster culture as a whole.

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Freedom and the Art of Balance Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Freedom and the Art of Balance - Essay Example The most noticeable one is Nichomachean Ethics. In this Aristotle pointed out the virtue ethics which demarcated the proper functioning of every article of thing. He said that what is fact is truth for e.g. an eye is only a good eye as long as it can see as the proper function of eye is sight. Also, he identified the best activity of the soul as eudaimonia (a sense of happiness that suffuses the good life) and in order to attain the good life one must live a balanced life and avoid anything in excess. This excess could hold different meaning for different people and also for different situations and exists as a golden mean between the two vices- one is an excess while other is a deficiency (Nichomachean Ethics). This is essential to define the quality of a person's habits or character as the man of excellence or the thing of excellence is said to have virtue and this in its highest forms is associated with potential for happiness (Nichomachean Ethics). Book 1 defines the subject matter and emphasizes on the Goal-directed ethics and is often called teleological. In this Aristotle stated that everything has a purpose or end. For instance a good knife has a purpose to cut and therefore must be sharp. In the similar manner every human has also a purpose this might be different than what he has thought, i.e.

Friday, September 27, 2019

Exhibits Of Liam Gillick Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Exhibits Of Liam Gillick - Research Paper Example It is the light color wood work in a marvelous way to utilize the maximum space of the hall while maintaining the hall as the best discussion place. Following are the 5 snapshots of the â€Å"installation in the German Pavilion† in diversified angle to visualize the beauty of placement of meeting discussion table and shelves: Colorful discussion bench platforms with a group of reflecting colors on top was a master piece of Gillick, displayed in 2010. Discussion Bench Platform exhibition took 40 days to put forward the marvelous art. Comprising of series of a structure with a well composed top theme with a flat bench, visual and aesthetic sense of the artist is depicted in the light of applied modernism along with the functional beauty of the platform. Benches have aluminum varnishing in powder form which is indeed a pragmatic addition in open minded discussion platform. Following are the five views of the discussion bench platform in diversified angle to visualize the beauty o f placement and color combinations: Liam Gillick is one of his own kinds in its diversifying art structure ranging from graphic design, music, film, sculpture, curatorial project, critical themes to deep writing. A wide variety of evasions, tangents, distractions, and diversions are there in his art work that adds to the beauty of his projects. Instead of focusing on the relational aesthetic and principles of abstraction, Gillick put emphasis on the productive social interaction and the discussed themes portray the same cause in a practical way.

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Thomas Pierce's Pragmatic Criterion Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Thomas Pierce's Pragmatic Criterion - Essay Example Pierce’s view in this essay is that for us to arrive at the correct and clear apprehension of an object, we must â€Å"consider what effects, which might conceivably have practical bearings, we conceive the object of our conception to have. Then, our conception of these effects is the whole of our conception of the object.† Significance of Pierce's Pragmatic Criterion Pragmatism is based on the premise that for intelligence practice to be possible, it is important that human beings have the capability to theorize. Pierce’s pragmatic criterion is significant in that it enables the two spheres of theory and practice to be integrated together into a functional unit and thus form the basis of intelligence practice. In this way, it enables people to have a clear and distinct conception about something. It also enables them to differentiate between clear and unclear/obscure, and between distinct and confused conceptions (Haack 36). Pierce’s pragmatic criterion e liminates the chances of forming conception about an object out of haste conclusions or personal perception. This is because it calls for a thorough analysis of the object in terms of its practical effects for example, if one was to state that something is soft or hard. The person will have to consider many effects of the hard or soft object on other objects and effects of other objects on this particular object. For example, the hard object can scratch other objects but it is not easily scratched by others and a good example is a stone. On the other hand, a soft object can easily be scratched by other objects but itself, it may not be able to scratch other objects. An example of this is a mattress. The practical effects/consequences in this case refers to results from experimental practice. In Pierce’s pragmatic criterion, only the sum of the consequences posed by the object constitutes its whole meaning of the conception and not any external feeling or perceptions (Pierce 2 90). It is therefore reasonable to conclude that Pierce’s pragmatic criterion is a criterion of truth. That is, a means through which we can judge the accuracy and validity of claims and statements about various objects. This is important given that various people can make different claims about a single object. From the above, it is clear that Pierce’s pragmatic criterion provides evidence of certainty and intellectual conception that is important for intelligence practice. Without this evidence of certainty or results from experimental practice, it would be difficult to distinguish some objects. For example without scratching a hard and soft object, it is very difficult to tell which one among them is soft and which one among them is hard. By the outlook, a diamond crystallized in the midst of a soft cotton cushion may seem softer than a mattress. However, this is not the reality of a diamond and a mattress (Pierce 291). Bringing the two objects to test is therefore the surest way of developing the correct conception of the two objects. Reflection is important in philosophy and Pierce’s pragmatic criterion provides an important means of reflection. The ultimate end of this is that it makes ideas clear. This is achieved through a good study of logic instead of putting them aside or eliminating them with haste answers. Haack and Lane (45) explain that in Pierce’

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Personal Finance - Case Study Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Personal Finance - Case Study - Essay Example king accounts of both DOHA and AL AHLI are free, and thus there is no benefit or loss a customer gets when he chooses any of these (Elsamadisy, AlKhater, & Mahmoud, 2006). The lesson learned is that DOHA offers cheaper rates than AL AHLI, and their credit cards are easy to service. The annual percentage rates of both banks vary for credit cards but are fixed for checkout accounts. This means that the flexibility and affordability of annual interest rates depend on the amount of money an individual has in the bank. On the other hand, there is no difference whether a person has a DOHA or AL AHLI’s checkout account because both banks offer fixed annual percentage rates. The lesson learned is that it is easy to finance checkout accounts than credit accounts in terms of annual percentage rates. The overdraft fees for DOHA’s credit card and checkout accounts are 90% and 95% of the balances held respectively. AL AHLI’s fees are higher at 95% and 98% for the credit card and checkout accounts respectively. DOHA offers lower rates by 5% and 3% for the respective account (Hossain, & Leo, 2009). Higher overdrafts attract higher fees on both accounts in both banks. The lesson learned is that DOHA offers cheaper overdraft charges for both credit cards and checkout accounts than AL AHLI, even though, the differences are slim. The transaction fees that credit card holders pay in both banks vary depending on where the transaction is made (Elsamadisy, AlKhater, & Mahmoud, 2006). DOHAs costs depend on the location while AL AHLI charges depending on the amount. For instance, DOHA charges QAR 15 for transactions outside Qatar while AL AHLI charges QAR 10 for amounts less than QAR 1000. Both Banks do not charge any transaction fees for their checkout accounts. The lesson learned is that is advisable to use DOHA’s credit card when traveling overseas. However, a foreign traveler wishing to withdraw a lot of money should consider using AL AHLI’s services to enjoy the huge

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Disclosure of information Movie Review Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Disclosure of information - Movie Review Example Instead of rebuking, Will assured her and said, â€Å"I know†. Grace was honest enough to disclose that it â€Å"wasn’t right† that â€Å"he was a smart, attractive guy who love me, who I love by the way. Why wasn’t it right?† Will did not demonstrate the slightest hint of anger but instead consoled Grace with the story of a play back in college. That the protagonists seemed â€Å"so perfect with each other but kept on missing each other because they are not destined to be.† Further assuring Grace, â€Å"Gracie, you are just in the middle of your movie and the point is, it’s not yet over. The movie will have a happy ending. You’ll just have to see it through.† And the trust was demonstrated when the two of them, with friends, had a drink later despite of what happened with Grace still in her wedding dress. When prodded, the two of them even kissed and kidded there was â€Å"nothing†. The episode tells us the lesson that though things did not materialize as intended, commitment does not have to end. As Will puts it, â€Å"Gracie, you are just in the middle of your movie and the point is, it’s not yet over. The movie will have a happy ending.† It could have been understandable had Will been upset and frustrated.

Monday, September 23, 2019

Discuss the role of marketing and the marketing department of tesco to Essay

Discuss the role of marketing and the marketing department of tesco to illustarte the points you make - Essay Example marketing department has to either seek new territories or new products or, most importantly, create new demand within an established market. Innovative ideas and affirmative action can generate new demand even for existing products. Initiatives like consumer loan schemes in association with banks, discounts, incentives, gift schemes, limited time offers and targeted promotion are the forte of marketing departments. Thus marketing plays a crucial role in any organisation. The famous four Ps (product-price-packaging-promotion) together with distribution and service form the tools of a marketing department. For successful marketing, it is necessary to understand the customer preferences for products, distribution logistics and strengths of competition. Customer preferences depend upon price, packaging and promotion. In all these matters, the marketing department has a vital role as it acts as the communication bridge between the customers’ preferences and the company. It also constantly monitors distributor / retailer activity, their inputs regarding customers feedback on product quality, price and attractiveness. While these activities keep the marketing department on its toes all the time, there is the ever-present threat of newer products and newer players entering the market, taking away customers on the one hand and the demands of management for improved performance on the other. Within the allotted budget, marketing department has to maint ain the existing market share and take actions for garnering new customers or entering new territories. These activities form the ‘challenging role’ for any marketing department. ‘Customer is the king’ is the marketing mantra and the efficiency with which he is serviced will determine an organisation’s success or failure. offering a basic product with variations in features, quality and packaging in order to service different customer segments. Obviously, this is intricately related to

Sunday, September 22, 2019

How should the International Financial System be changed (legally and Essay

How should the International Financial System be changed (legally and politically) so that the burden of the dollar as the main reserve currency for the world d - Essay Example The financial markets went into a tailspin recently when it was rumored that Kingdom of Saudi Arabia was looking at alternative to dollar for pegging its currency. Iran has tried unsuccessfully to exhort OPEC countries look for alternatives to dollar, but has announced that it would diversify its foreign reserve portfolio to include Euro as well. It will not create much dent in US armor yet it has strong political message for USA. Malaysia has also tried to establish gold dinar for settling bilateral trade with Iran. Experts feel that it would not be as widespread as these two countries hope as gold would be too cumbersome to be traded and exchanged. Similarly some South American countries are also trying to establish alternatives to IMF and World Bank to cut the dependence on USA and its interfering policies as they see them. They are all small steps yet they show that countries are looking at alternatives to the US dollar. US dollar is not the most preferred currency with the common man too; there are reports that now a days people prefer to be paid in their local currencies by foreigners rather than dollars for the fear of devaluation of dollar something unimaginable a couple of years ago. This shows that the confidence on dollar cross the globe is ebbing slowly but surely. Jean-Claude Trichet President ECB has as far back as 2005 called for structural changes in the international financial system to take care of financial crisis which calls for greater financial transparency, more systematic approach to the future growth and greater global ownership. Apart from these three measures, inclusiveness of emerging economies and economies in transition in international financial architecture and greater cooperation of central banks of emerging economies and economies in transition would help in systematic development and correction of financial system. This shows that not only Europe and Japan have are going to have greater say in international financial system but emerging economies like BRIC and other South East Asian counties too will need to be included. A significant departure from the fact that USA called the shots after the downfall of USSR and end of cold war. USA is grappling with huge current account deficit, Japan as current account surplus where as Europe is balanced. Erosion of value of dollar and erosion of political supremacy of USA is linked together. It is time now for USA to share the burden of dollar with Europe. Edwin M Truman (2007) in his speech has said, "The United States and Europe have huge stakes and responsibilities in the stability of the international economy and financial system. How their authorities manage their economies and develop their financial systems is key. The challenge is to promote healthy, and to minimize unhealthy, competition between the euro and the dollar and their associated financial systems and economies." He calls for climb down of US and European claim to ownership on IMF and World Bank and include emerging and developing countries in the position of management rather than recipients. He even calls for changing the voting pattern to give greater weight age to other countries of the world to ref lect their growing economic stature. The "advanced" countries would need to give up their share by at least 10 basis points and might call for increase in the fund size by 50 percent. This would mean acknowledging the political and economic advancement of the so called developing nations by USA and its allies. There are reports

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Prison Gangs Essay Example for Free

Prison Gangs Essay In our prison environments, there are many kinds of threats to inmate and officer safety daily. The correctional system in our country contains many gangs within the walls and connected to our streets. These groups, known as Security Threat Groups, are usually operated by race, and are active in our Federal Bureau of Prisons and in at least 40 state correctional systems. Inmates are pretty much forced to join their racial group or gang to ensure their personal safety while in prison. In the 1980’s and 1990’s, inmates were more racially twisted than ever before, and each race in a facility had a leader if not more than one. Inmates isolate themselves from other racial groups. While this was producing more racial tension in the environment, it was also producing Security Threat Group’s that were getting more organized and skilled at running the drug trade and social environments within the walls of the correctional facilities. Some of these gangs are more organized than others are, and produce the most followers. Because of organizational factors and growing numbers of members, the Aryan Brotherhood, Ku Klux Klan, the and MS-13 have emerged as our biggest security group threats in the American corrections system. The Aryan Brotherhood originated in San Quentin in the mid-sixties and was founded by Barry Mills and Tyler Bingham. This group is one of the best known gangs with many crews in our correctional facilities. The Aryan Brotherhood started to protect white inmates from black inmates during the time that the prisons were integrated. The Aryan Brotherhood is primarily located in the southwest and pacific areas of the country and is weakest in the northeastern areas where blacks are the strongest. The creed of the Brotherhood is, â€Å"I will stand by my brother. My brother will come before all others. My life is forfeited should I fail my brother. I will honor my brother in peace and war. † Members of the Brotherhood are lifetime members who commit to a blood in, blood out oath. This basically means that in order to get in you must kill an enemy and the only way to get out is to be killed. Most members support the white nationalist model, but crime is the real motivator and support for the group. The group, divided into two crews, operates both in the Federal Bureau of Prisons and at the state level. They operate in a fashion consistent with organized crime. Beginning as a local prison gang, the Aryan Brotherhood have grown into one of the most dangerous gangs in our prisons today, with ties to the Mexican Mafia, and Asian gangs originating in Thailand. These gang ties help fuel their growing narcotics trade. Members are expected to carry out these crimes within the walls and to continue the activities to further the interests of the group upon release. It would also seem that the Aryan Brotherhood has close ties to the non-prison security threat group the Ku Klux Klan due to the doctrinal similarities. The Ku Klux Klan was established by some ex-confederate soldiers in Pulaski, Tennessee in 1866. The groups name came from the Greek word kuklos, meaning â€Å"group or band,† and took the third as a variant of the word clan. The Klan started as a large recreational group and soon turned to intimidating the newly freed African Americans. While riding around at night, the Klan terrorized and sometimes murdered the ones that they were against. The members started to wear a hooded white costume, a disguise that represented the ghosts of the dead Confederates, to avoid being identified and to scare people during their raids. The Klan is the strongest in the South and in the Midwest. Today the KKK has been greatly weakened as their views have become more and more radical. They consider themselves a Christian organization and base their doctrines upon their own reading of the Bible. Their theology is strongly influenced by Christian Reconstructions they hope to reconstruct the United States along biblical lines and to establish a white-dominated theocracy. While MS-13 is one of our newer gang problems in the United States with MS 13 forming in the Los Angeles area in the mid 1980’s this security threat group is one of the biggest problems we face in our communities and correctional facilities today. They grew out of El Salvadorian immigrants that came together forming MS to protect themselves from other Latin gangs already present in Los Angeles. Later they aligned with the Mexican Mafia, La Eme, adding the 13 to note the allegiance to them. This gang operates out of 42 states, along with the District of Columbia. In the 1990’s, MS-13 came to law enforcements attention as they were targeting violent areas in Hispanic neighborhoods. When law enforcement deported the violent gang members, they took their gang to their home countries such as El Salvador, while spreading their ways into other Central American countries, Mexico, and furthering their following in the United States. Today they are known for their excessive use of violence and are considered to be the worst of the worst security threat group’s known for their adaptability where law enforcement operations are concerned. The hierarchy is based on status, which is based upon how many acts have been committed for the gang. There is no national leaders recognized, instead leadership is based on local leaders. Originally, all members were El Salvadoran nationality; however, they currently accept any Hispanic heritage in their ranks. Among the crimes these gangs have been charged with are murder, robbery, stabbings, drive by shootings, assault, sexual assault, rape, and extortion. They have also, been charged with witness tampering and intimidation crimes. One of the biggest concerns of law enforcement is that this is one of the fastest growing gangs today. Because of organizational factors and growing numbers of members, the Aryan Brotherhood, Ku Klux Klan, and MS13 have emerged as our biggest security group threats in the American corrections system. These groups have different ideologies and methods of operations, but they all have some similarities. These can be the fact that they are all either directly or indirectly affiliated with violence and drug trafficking, or that all believe that their way is the only right way. Law enforcement agencies have their work cut out for them, considering the rate of growth of some security threat group’s is large enough in some areas to cause the FBI to raise their threat assessment levels higher, as in the case of MS13.

Friday, September 20, 2019

Obesity: Effect on Total Joint Replacement Patients

Obesity: Effect on Total Joint Replacement Patients The critical factor driving the growth in worldwide demand for joint replacement is obesity Kumar Anjan Contents (Jump to) Abstract: 1. Introduction 2. Obesity – How can we define it? 3. Surgical Risk: 4. Obesity and Implant Failure 5. Conclusion 6. Bibliography Abstract: During early days, obese individuals were often suggested to lose weight before undergoing total joint replacement (TJR). It was common observation amongst surgeons and doctors that morbidity rate amongst obese individuals were significantly high as compared to that of non-obese subjects. In addition, there was significant increase in the physical and technical labour of operating overweight individuals. This resulted in time saving and managing long queue of patients. Recently, scientific reports with positive results reflected that there is only negligible effect of obesity on TJR. However, recently in the UK several health care authorities proposed that there would not be any financial support provided to the individuals whose BMI exceeds 30 kg/m2. The primary reason behind the decision is the reduction in health care budget. In olden days, TJR was a procedure considered for those who were more than 65 years of age. However, this trend is significantly changing. According to Dr. A yeres (MD, Chair in Orthopaedics, and director of the Musculoskeletal Centre of Excellence at UMass Medical School), with an increased rate of obesity amongst individuals under the age of 65 is acting as a driving force towards TJR. Therefore, in this case report I have discussed about obesity and its effect on TJR.   1. Introduction: Total joint replacement (TJR) is globally acknowledged especially due to the revolution in the quality of life for those individuals suffering from osteoarthritis or similar health problems (Garellick et al, 1998). Moreover, in modern medicine TJR has proved its effectiveness as one of the most successful interventions. There are also several high demo graphs recorded towards the improvement of the quality of life, which surpasses coronary artery bypass as well as renal transplants (Williams A, 1985). In elderly population, TJR’s especially knee anthroplasty has shown to be most effective technology resulting towards better life quality. Study conducted among a population cohort of over 65 subjects who had TJR shows that they are leading a healthier life (UK population Census, 2001). Total joint replacement has definitely bought a revolution in modern health care system. However, there are certain implications that concern the public. One of the most critical limitations is the budgetary control which enforced by the competitive claim from the other intensive medical care system. Furthermore, as these treatments are not actually cost effective; therefore, it raises questions for the individuals undergoing a replacement as well as the government bodies who support the funding (Templeton, S.K. 2005). Recently, East Suffolk health trust in the U.K. decided to prioritize their patients undergoing TJR according to their weight and various other factors resulting in obesity. According to the top management of the trust, individuals who are overweight or obese are at an increased risk towards the efficacy of the surgery. This decision has definitely stirred controversy among the community undergoing TJR (Finer N, 2005). However, according to some valued sources, there i s no evidence that age, obesity or gender affects the functional outcome of the surgery (Templeton, S. K. 2005). Therefore, there is huge controversy surrounding towards the potential implications of obesity on TJR. Orthopaedic studies suggest that obesity leads towards degenerative changes in joints and leads towards complications and functional risk during post-surgery phase (Rockville, 2003). As there is no standard definition for obesity, it rather becomes very difficult to understand its actual meaning. However, several health care professionals recommend that problem in mobilisation and functional outcome is not visualised until an individual’s (BMI) exceeds 40 kg/m2 (Nammi et al, 2004). Various evidences conclude that obesity is the driving force towards development of osteoarthritis particularly in individuals with high BMI in an early age (DoH, 2001). In some rare scenarios, bariatic surgery is performed on the individuals before TJR. This is mainly due to bring their weight down to an acceptable score. 2. Obesity – How can we define it? Over several years, different authors described obesity in a different way. Obesity does not have an actual standard definition. However, the most common scientific way to describe obesity is based on the Body Mass Index (BMI) (Fig: 1) (Lawrence, 1998). BMI is also known as Quetelet Mass Index (QI) and is generally described as the ratio of the square of the height measured in meters (mt) to the weight in kilograms (kg) (Taylor, 1998). QI relates the body fat percentage and is one of the most preferred methods for the assessment of the potential health risk related with the overweight or obesity. Recently, authors started using the term â€Å"New World Syndrome† for obesity as its prevalence is dramatically increasing in the Europe as well as in the United States (USA). A shocking figure was projected when a recent survey was conducted by the Department of Health in the UK. According to the survey, prevalence in obesity has increased from 15% since 1995 to 21% in 2001 (Webb et al, 2004). Fig: 1 BMI Chart the ratio of the square of the height measured in meters (mt) to the weight in kilograms (kg). In the US, obesity has reached in an epidemic proportion. Considering the BMI of an individual, more than half of the adult population in the US are classified as overweight. According to a separate survey conducted in the US amongst 65-74 year age group, 66% were referred to as obese or overweight. Therefore, we can visualise the prevalence of obesity coinciding with the peak age during which most of the individual requires TJR (US Dept. of Health and Human Services, 2003). In the UK, the data shows similar outcomes to that of the US. Obesity amongst males in the UK has increased from 6% in 1980 to 22% in 2002 whereas in females, 8% 23% (DhO, 2001). According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), there is an increase in obesity between 10% 40% in last 10 years. WHO also claims that there are approximately 200 million obese adults around the globe and 18 million children under age five are classified as overweight. Moreover, by 2000 this data significantly increased to over 300 m illion. Osteoarthritis (OA) is a group of mechanical abnormalities, which involves in the degradation of joints, articular cartilage. It generally affects approximately 20 million individuals in the US. It causes substantial morbidity leading to disability in the later stages. This disease is more common amongst elderly population. However, recently it was observed that adult age group between 60-65 years of age are getting prone to this disease. According to few scientific sources, the main reason for OA amongst younger generation is obesity. Various scientific reports documents that in the US more than 200,000 knee and hip replacements are performed each year and 35% are young individuals under the age of 65 (Dho, 2001; US Dept. of Health and Human Services, 2003). Obesity is one of the most significant risk factors contributing towards osteoarthritis. Therefore, with an increase in obesity, there is a high probability of developing osteoarthritis. Moreover, this leads towards an increase prevalence of TJR (Felson et al, 2000). As we know that, there is a constant increase among obese patients undergoing TJR. Therefore, several researches links obesity with the TJR as well as the complications associated with the same. According to a joint study performed by a group of scientists and surgeons, it was found that there is an increase in complication rate in obese patients as compared to individuals with normal BMI (Olivera et al, 1999; Sahyoun et al, 1999). In addition, the operative duration significantly increases in obese subjects. However, factors like physical stress and injury to health care professional remains undiscovered. As already mentioned, it has been well established that there is a positive link that connects TJR and obesity. Whil st examining, individuals with high BMI are in an exponential increase for TJR over next few decades. According to several health care professionals, there is often a challenging situation during pre/post surgery in obese individuals. Moreover, there is a high risk of blood loss and blood transfusion. It has also been highlighted that nerve injury is common amongst obese patients as compared to the healthy individuals (non-obese) during TJR (Mantilla et al, 2003). 3. Surgical Risk: In the previous section, it was discussed that East Suffolk Health Trust in the UK prioritised their patients, which resulted in a huge controversy. According to public and human right activists, their decision was biased towards the individuals with higher BMI. The main reason behind the decision was increased risk and the cost involved in performing TJR amongst obese/overweight individuals. Supporting the decision of East Suffolk Health Trust, â€Å"Ipswich Protocol† was followed. According to this protocol, orthopaedic surgeons and health care personals were advised that patients/individuals found with BMI>30 should be barred towards the access of TJR/anthroplasty (Amen et al, 2006). Winiarsky’s group performed a research on a population cohort with BMI>40 undergoing TJR. The result showed that 22% of the subjects suffered from wound complication, 10% individuals developed infection and 8% of the subjects suffered from ligament damage. When these result was compared with the wild type (normal population), it was seen that only 2% non-obese subjects developed wound complication, 0.6% suffered from infection and surprisingly there were non with ligament damage. Later, same group of individuals were studied after five years and significant post surgical differences were noticed in obese subjects as compared to the normal (non-obese) individuals. Therefore, we can conclude from the above study that obese patients have high risk during pre and post surgery (Vasqez et al, 2003). However, in Toronto, a random survey amongst 24231-population cohort showed that after 2-7 years of surgery there was a high level of patient satisfaction with reference to pain and func tion. In addition, there was no negative impact on outcome that co-related with subject’s age or obesity (Heisel et al, 2005). In Los Angeles California, Miric et al studied several factors leading towards TJR complexity. Research was performed amongst 406 subjects undergoing total knee anthroplasty (TKA). According to the researchers, it was observed that there was a significant co-relation between BMI and subject’s cardiac history. Interestingly, patients with diabetes mellitus have had an increase stay in hospital as compared to the healthy (non-diabetic) patients. Therefore, the study concluded that there was not a significant difference amongst heavier patients as compared to those with normal BMI. In addition, the cut offs of BMI dividing overweight and obesity did not accurately divide patients into high/low risk categories (Foran et al, 2004). In Scotland, research was performed amongst group of 283 TKA patients between 1995 and 1999 consisting of obese and non-obese subjects. Researchers concluded that there was no significant difference in complication rates (Peersman et al, 2001). In a similar study in Baltimore Maryland, evaluation outcome of TKA in 68 obese subjects showed that after five years of surgery there was no significant difference amongst obese and non-obese subjects. However, surprisingly after 7 years of surgery obese patients had a higher â€Å"implant failure† rate as compared to non-obese subjects. It was also noted that 12.3% of the obese patients had to go for a re-operation due to implant failure. In addition, deep vein thrombosis was only noticed in obese subjects. Pritchett and Bortel described that obese patients had greater blood loss and needed blood transfusion as well as longer operative time. Peersman supported the view saying that the increase in the infection rate in obese patients w as due to the prolonged operative duration (Prichett and Bortel, 1991). 4. Obesity and Implant Failure As described in the previous section, in Baltimore, there was no evidence of either complication or mortality amongst obese patients after five years of surgery. However, the same group individuals suffered an â€Å"Implant Failure† after seven years of TJR. Various researches were conducted and scientists concluded that younger patients (age 65). Simulation of metal-onpolyethylene arthroplasty model under laboratory conditions showed that the principle cause of the device failure was due to increased wear rates when greater load was applied. Hence, it was proved that younger subjects due to their daily life routine were applying more force on the implant as compared to elder population cohort (Barbour et al, 1995; McKellop et al, 1995). Moreover, subjects who were able to reduce weight in seven years were living a healthier life as compared to other subjects. Therefore, we can conclude that obesity also potentially affects the device failure in long run. 5. Conclusion Recently, obesity and TJR has pulled the interest of several scientists, health care personals and even the government. Various government officials and trust group supporting financial aid are still under the impression that obesity leads to TJR. However, there is neither significant evidence nor sufficient clinical results to support their view. TJR surgery is a reliable procedure to offer sustainable pain relief and provide healthier life style regardless individual’s BMI. However, we cannot ignore the fact that obese individuals require special care in terms of patient handling, surgical exposure etc. In addition, obese subject are also at a high risk in wound healing, infection and longer duration of operative duration. It is also clinically proven that higher activity level leads towards device failure. As mentioned earlier, due to physical work restriction after TJR high probability lies towards increasing BMI. Therefore, it is recommended that individual’s shoul d attend weight loss programme before undergoing TJR. 6. Bibliography Amin AK, Clayton RA, Patton JT, Gaston M, Cook RE, Brenkle IJ. Total knee replacement in Morbidly Obese Patients. J Bone Jt Surg 2006;88(10-B):1321–6. Barbour PSM, Barton DC, Fisher J. The influence of contact stress on the wear of UHMWPE for hip replacements. Wear 1995;181–183:250–7. DoH Health Surveys, 1980, 1995, 2001 — Department of Health Publication, HMSO. Finer N. Rationing joint replacements — Trusts decision seems to be based on prejudice or attributing blame†¦. Br Med J 2005;331:1472. Foran JR, Mont MA, Etienne G, Jones LC, Hungerford DS. The outcome of total knee arthroplasty in obese patients. J Bone Jt Surg 2004;86(8-A):1609. Garellick G, Malchau H, Herberts P, Axelsson H, Hansson T. Life expectancy and cost utility after total hip replacement. Clin OrthopRelat Res 1998;346:141–51. Heisel C, Silva M, dela Rosa MA, Schmalzried TP. The effects of lower-extremity total joint replacement for arthritis on obesity. Orthopedics 2005;28(2):157. Lawrence RC, Helmick CG, Arnett FC, et al. Estimates of the prevalence of arthritis and selected musculoskeletal disorders in the United States. Arthritis Rheum. 1998;41:778–799. Mantilla CB, Horlocker TT, Schroeder DR, Berry DJ, Brown DL. Risk factors for clinically relevant pulmonary embolism and deep venous thrombosis in patients undergoing primary hip or knee arthroplasty. Anesthesiology 2003;99(3):552–60. McKellop HA, Campbell P, Park S-H, Schmalzried TP, Sarmiento A, Grigoris P, Amstutz HC. The origin of submicron wear debris in total hip arthroplasty. Clin Orthop Relat Res 1995;311:3–20. Nammi S, Koka S, Chinnala Krishna M, Boini Krishna M. Obesity: an overview on its current perspectives and treatment options. Nutr J 2004;3:3. Oliveria SA, Felson DT, Cirillo PA, Reed JI,Walker AM. Body weight, body mass index, and incident symptomatic osteoarthritis of the hand, hip, and knee. Epidemiologia March 1999;10(2):161. Pritchett JW, Bortel DT. Knee replacement in morbidly obese women. Surg Gynecol Obstet 1991;173(2):119–22. Rockville MD: Department of Health and Human Services. Total knee replacement. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; Department of Health and Human Services, 2003. (Evidence report/technology assessment No 86.). Sahyoun NR, Hochberg MC, Helmick CG, Harris T, Pamuk ER. Body mass index, weight change, and incidence of self-reported, physiciandiagnose arthritis among women. Am J Pub Health 1999;89(3):391–4. Taylor RW, Kiel D, Gold EJ, Williams SM, Goulding A. Body mass index, waist girth and waist-to-hip ratio as indexes of total and regional adiposity in women: evaluation using receiver operating characteristic curves. Am J Clin Nutr Jan 1998;67:44–9. Templeton S-K. â€Å"Doctors will get right not to treat self-inflicted illnesses†, The Sunday Times; November 27, 2005. UK Population Census 2001 US Department Of Health And Human Services. Clinical guidelines on the identification, evaluation, and treatment of obesity in adults: the evidence report; 2003. Vasquez-Vela Johnson G, Worland RL, Keenan N, Norambuena N. Patient demographics as a predictor of the ten-year survival rate in primary total knee replacement. J Bone Jt Surg 2003;85-B(1):52–6. Webb R, Brammah T, Lunt M, Urwin M, Allison T, Symmons D. Opportunities for prevention of ‘clinically significant’ knee pain:results from a population-based cross sectional study. J Pub Health Sep 2004;26(3):277–84. Williams A. Economics of coronary artery bypass grafting. Br Med J 1985;291:325–6.

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Pauls Case Essay examples -- essays research papers

Hello to all of you, my name is Paul. It seems that much has been said of me and I, for one would like for you to know the true story, as I see it. There is nothing more beautiful than music, that is a fact that has helped me throughout all of my life. â€Å"The first sigh of the instruments† can feel to me like a thousand wonderful days all wrapped into that one moment. There are not many who understand the pull of the stage and of the arts to a person like me, not my teachers, and certainly not my father. There was a man, though, who seemed to understand my plight. His name is Charley Edwards, an actor at Carnagie Hall, whom I have seen perform many times, and who I consider to be a close, personal friend. But even he could not grasp the luck of life which he had. In order for you to understand a little more about the truths of the arts, let me tell you what makes me love them so. Growing up among the â€Å"ugliness and commonness† of Cordelia Street was very difficult for me, not only because of my father and the loathing I had for him, but because of the â€Å"flavorless, colorless mass of everday living† there. I never belonged there. I dreamed of the day when I could sit for hours upon hours and just listen to the orchestras, wearing purple and looking at flowers. You see these beautiful things that belonged in my life were totally absent as long as I was anywhere near Cordelia Street in Pittsburgh. Have I told you yet about the beauty of red carnations? No, I guess I haven’t. I wo...

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Humorous Wedding Speech by a Friend of the Groom (Bridegroom) :: Wedding Toasts Roasts Speeches

Humorous Wedding Speech by a Friend of the Groom (Bridegroom) Good afternoon, Ladies and Gentlemen - My name is Charles. I've tried to memorise this speech, but forgive me if I resort to my notes every five seconds. I did ask for an autocue to be set up in front of me, but apparently the wedding budget doesn't stretch that far. And, unfortunately, neither does my eyesight. Laughter I've known Steven for 22 years now and we've had more good times than I can remember - and we'd have had a one more if I hadn't run out of money in that strip cub on the other night. During this period, I’ve seen Steven go through many evolutionary changes to end up the man he is today. And in order to understand exactly what went wrong, we must start by examining his early goals in life. At school, Steven had two goals: 1) To play for the school baseball (cricket) team – which he did. In fact, his prowess was legendary and he single-handedly rewrote the school record books - shortest time at bat (in bat), most catches dropped and most unforced errors in a single game (wides bowled in an over). The list is endless. 2) To star in a school play – and his first opportunity came with the school’s major production of â€Å"Snow White & the Seven Dwarfs†, in which Steven was cast as one of the dwarfs. And very soon, he had made the part his own. From the outset, he personified his role day and night, living and breathing the essence of his character. And many say they’ve never since seen a more virtuoso performance of Dopey. After leaving school, Steven’s goal was to travel the world. But he only got as far as New Zealand, where we all new it would suit him down to the ground. What with the sun, sea, surf and, of course, the biggest draw of them all – the sheep. On his return, his goal was to land a job in a bank because they had the two things he liked best: money and holidays. But if it hadn’t been for me it might never have happened. When applying for the job he asked me to give his application form a quick once over before he sent it off. It was a good thing he did. Where he was asked, ‘Length of residence at present address,’ he had replied, ‘About 20 meters – not counting the garage.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

The companies were referred to as Texaco

In South Africa there were two companies that were selling shares its the residents.The companies were referred to as Texaco Inc. and Standard Oil Company of California (SOCAL).   The Members of   Interfaith centre that dealt with corporate responsibility   argued that they owned shares in both companies and they were suggesting to terminate their businesses because South Africa was facing political unrest thus their decision to shut down the two companies.Mr. Tim Smith was the Project Director of Interfaith Centre on corporate responsibility.   He was behind the decision of closing the two companies.   In an annual meeting that was held in 1977, it stated that the people of South Africa were being mistreated by the whites who were the minority in the country.The residents human rights were being abused since they were not being given the chance to vote, to trade freely in the country, they were being paid low wages and the blacks were always discriminated against by the wh ites and this issues triggered Mr. Tim Smith to decline to invest in   the country.There were other social crimes that were being experienced by     the residents of the country such as widespread killings, arrests and repression.   These issues continued to affect the human rights of the people of South Africa and thus the level of investment was affected.The Board of Directors of the two companies later agreed that it was reasonable to shut down the two companies due to the abuse of human rights of the residents of South Africa since they contributed to the success of the company and they also enabled the economy of the country to grow.   The Board of Directors urged the government of South Africa to end the crisis so that they could embark on their businesses.( resolution to close down the two companies was later reviewed by the Board of Directors because they owned an oil company known as Caltex Petroleum Company whi ch was located in the country and was reported to be performing well .   It was reported that the company was owned by the Texaco Inc.   and Standard Oil Company of California (SOCAL) by a rate of 50% shares thus it was impossible for them to leave the business yet it was generating some revenue to the country and the owners were also benefiting from it.They announced that Caltex Company was worth $100 million and the management of the company was planning to expand its refinery plant in Milnerto in South Africa from a capacity of 58,000 barrels a day to a capacity of 108,000 barrels a day and this would increase the supply of oil in South Africa by a rate of 11%, hence it would contribute to greater returns for the country.The management of Texaco and SOCAL resolved to continue with their business besides the political unrest in the country.   They thus urged their stockholders to vote against liquidating their companies .   The management of both companies promised to impr ove the working conditions of its black employees.The Caltex management implemented six principles in its code of conduct.   These were: ensuring that employees were not segregated due to their race; they were equally paid and fairly treated in their   work place.The code of conduct stated that there was a training programme that would be developed and initiated so as to prepare their employers for supervisory, administrative, clerical and technical jobs so as to improve their performance in their activities and hence enable the company to generate as much revenue to the country as possible ( management of a company has legal duties besides ensuring high returns for its shareholders.   It has the duty of ensuring   that the employees comply with the employment law so they do not deviate from what they are expected to do.   The employment law states   that the management of the company should not unf airly dismiss its employees from their   work places since they should be given time to defend their cases before being dismissed.The employers are also requested to ensure that they do not discriminate their employees based on their race since this can affect their performance because no employee knew where he or she was born and brought up.In the case of the South Africa there was racial discrimination that was carried out against the black employees and this affected their performance.   In my view companies should implement laws of ensuring that these practices are not carried out so that the performance of a company cannot be affected. ( management of a company also has the obligation of ensuring that the interests of the company do not go against the interests of the society.   It has been noted that society is the final consumer of the products of the company thus it is important for the management t o ensure that they pay attention to the queries that arise in the community so that they can address the employees’ problems effectively since the success of the company’s depend on the employees performance hence they need to protect their rights and also they need to be treated fairly.The management of a company has the responsibility of ensuring that the employees are given health insurance schemes because they are responsible for the production of goods and services of the company.   The issuance of health schemes can prevent workers from leaving the work places due to poor working conditions which affects their productivity.The management of a company should train its employees about the activities of the company so that they can learn what they are expected to do.According to the South African case, Reverend Doctor Leon Sullivani   initiated a training programme that would ensure good performance of the company and this programme was implemented in a code of conduct so that their policy would be followed at all times by the employees of a company and this was a positive move since this would increase their productivity since the time would not be wasted on repeating small issues, yet training highlights all activities of the company thus enabling work to be carried out effectively.The management of a company should not look at the law and the rate of return on its investment as the ultimate criteria for deciding what investment it should make because there are other factors that an investor should take into account when deciding on the type of investment that he should carry out such as time value of money that is whether the returns on an investment are required now or in the future.The investor also   considers the capital outline that is required in starting and maintaining a project until the time it starts to generate returns for the company.   Another criteria the management of a company should     consider is that the typ e of industry in which they would like to set up.   The investors should research from the people about what they prefer most so that the management of a company can have a ready market for their goods and services once the industries start to operate.In case of the South African company, the South African government had imposed some restrictions on the company known as Caltex, that it would not supply its oil products to the military or the police of South Africa.   This was a challenge to the company because such restrictions reduced the returns of the company.It was wrong for the South African government to ban the sale of its petroleum products because the companies should sell their products anywhere in the world and to any potential buyer since the returns of the company are also beneficial to the residents since they can be paid better wages by the companies’ returns, the economy of the country can improve due to the corporate taxes that are collected from these co mpanies .In the case of South African companies, Bishop Desmond Tutu’s decision to impose laws that were beneficial to the black workers was a positive move since the government had failed to recognize the employees who contributed to the success of the company.The laws included providing good working condition by ensuring they were properly accommodated with houses that were near their places of work, by recognizing black trading unions and also by recognizing the right of workers and the   allowance of labor mobility, so as to enhance productivity of workers.   He also enforced a law of ensuring that fair trade practices were being practiced as education and training was conducted so as to eliminate illiteracy among the workers of a company.The company’s should consider various factors when investing because the success of a company depends on them .For instance the workers of a company should be fairly treated they should not be unfairly discriminated against ,t hey should be properly remunerated so that they can not leave their company’s since this can affect their productivity and the reputation of a company can be affected due to the high rate of turnover of their employees.ReferencesWebsite   accessed on 2nd May 2, 2008  Website  Ã‚   accessed on 2nd May 2, 2008Website  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   ACCESSED ON 2nd May 2, 2008Website  Ã‚  Ã‚   ACCESSED ON 2nd May 2, 2008

Monday, September 16, 2019

Engl227 Week 1 Scenario

ENGL227 Week 1 Assignment Scenario You are an upper-level manager in a large metropolitan hotel. One of your assistant managers, Jeff Clarke, has left you a voicemail message requesting emergency leave for the upcoming holiday weekend. Here's what the message stated: I'm calling to request emergency leave again for this weekend. I know I've had three emergency leaves in the last two months, but my grandma isn't feeling well again, and she really needs me to take care of her. I'll be in later tonight for my shift. Can you let me know then? Thanks.You know from previous requests for time off that Jeff's grandmother is coping with a debilitating illness. Your other assistant manager, Nina Hernandez, has covered for Jeff three times in the last two months. She has been looking forward to having this weekend off, as she is going out of town to celebrate her grandson's first birthday. You are already on the schedule this weekend, and if you allow Jeff's emergency leave, you'll be short-sta ffed. To make matters worse, there's a professional conference this weekend for electrical engineers at a nearby convention center, and many of the attendees will be staying at your hotel.This is the first time the convention center has directed attendees to your hotel, and if all goes well, this could mean a lot more business throughout the year. Jeff's absences are becoming more and more of a problem. You could call him back on the phone to deny his request, but you're starting to think you may need a written record of some sort to document the problem in case Jeff's employment needs to be terminated. Human Resources at Corporate are always emphasizing the need for documentation. 1.Complete the Required Audience Profile (below) for Jeff, with the understanding that someone in Human Resources may be a secondary audience for this written response at a later date. 2. Select an appropriate choice of medium: electronic or print. (See Chapter 4 for guidance in selecting an appropriate m edium. ) 3. Write a message to Jeff using an appropriate media choice denying his request and explaining the reasons why. You don't want to fire Jeff, but you do want to be clear that you are denying the request. You really need his help this weekend.Submit the audience profile AND the written message to Jeff to the Week 1 Dropbox. Successful assignments will meet the criteria outlined in the grading rubric included in the Doc Sharing area. Required Audience Profile This audience profile is required as part of the week one assignment. Answer the questions below to create a thorough profile for your primary audience, Jeff Clarke, and your secondary audience, Human Resources. 1. Is my primary audience external or internal? This instance has an internal audience.Since Jeff Clarke is an employee the communication is within the company. 2. What are some key demographics about my audience, such as age, gender, family situation, etc.? The demographics for this situation are the conference coming up, and the family problems Jeff is having, which is the cause for the issues at hand. 3. How much does my audience know about the topic? Jeff has caused the problem, so he is aware of it. He is the assistant manager, and knows about the scheduled event, as well as how much his presence is necessary. 4.How much formality does my audience prefer? The information given does not allow me to know the person, but since the communication is within a business setting I would keep it formal. 5. How do I expect my audience to react to this message? If the family issue is true then, I would hope for understanding that the problem is out of my hands. Also, I would hope my co-workers would be willing to give the support I need during the troubling family crisis. 6. What are my audience’s values in relation to this message? What do they care about most?With the information provided Jeff’s relation to the message is the need for the message, his family crisis, but The Human R esources office cares most about the shift being covered by Jeff, and not his personal problems. 7. What do I want my audience to think, do, feel, or believe after reading my message? I would hope the primary audience, the company, would empathize with the problems I am currently having, and not penalize me for caring for my mother during her illness. 8. Are there any benefits for my audience that is related to this message? The benefit or the audience I can think of would be to try and schedule the leave for after the event, so both parties can be satisfied. 9. What information do I need to include for the secondary audience? The secondary audience, Human Resources, requires paper work for incidences and emergencies. A doctor’s note and a request are needed to clear the time off, and an incident report is needed to terminate the employee. 10. Which medium is most appropriate for this message and this audience? Why? For Human Resources, a full write up of the incident would b e an acceptable medium.If Jeff were to have provide more of a notice than the company could have been more prepared, and the there is a risk that Nina could not accommodate the request because of her plans. If she has already left town or does not respond, then the shift will have to be covered by Jeff as originally intended. Jeff, As you have already been informed there is a conference for electrical engineers coming up this weekend, and they will require a full staff’s attention in order to gain their future business and referrals. The presence of all our managers scheduled is required.Unfortunately, Nina has given a request to go out of town, and has already made arrangements to do so. In the past she has been happy to cover your shift for an emergency, but she has already been given leave, and will not be able to work for you. We are unable to approve this leave of absence for the weekend of the event, but are more than happy to accommodate you for an emergency leave afte r this event. We appreciate your understanding in the current situation, and hope you grandmother gets well. Sincerely, Matt Ferry Hotel Management

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Media as extension of man

Marshall McLuhan is widely considered as one of the most important intellectual figure of 20th century and widely noted for his contribution on media culture and philosophy of media studies. McLuhan rose to international fame in 1960s when his work on mass media and its effect on social and individual behavior was published. . His remarkable observations on nature of simple things those have central importance in defining the cultural and behavioral outlook of society. In predicting the role of media, especially through modern revolution of electronic revolution and use of computers, views of McLuhan adopted futuristic tone in stating the extended role of medium itself as the message, from its earlier perception of just being a carrier of the message. He realized the importance of electrical processes in shaping and defining the reality of world, views that have been validated especially after computer revolution and increasing integration of world through internet as chief medium of communication and medium of message Medium as Message As a prelude to understanding the media as the extension of man, McLuhan puts particular emphasis on the importance of medium itself that is generally regarded as just a carrier of messages or information as playing the role of message. This implies that the medium through which the messages are being communicated is not an inert entity, rather it participates in the process by extending the role of man and contributes by adding further dimension in affairs with help of technology. In the context, McLuhan uses his famous example that dwells on nature and role of electric light. Light, as McLuhan points out, is not just a medium of information, but also complete information in itself. Although the general and common view puts actual significance on the content of the message that light visibly carries and ignores the role of light itself, the fact remains that it is the medium itself that defines the scale and nature of human association with the information (McLuhan, 151). McLuhan illustrates this by signaling out major corporations such as IBM, GE and AT&T who took time to realize the fact they are not in the business of producing machines and equipments but in the business of channeling information. McLuhan argues that media also similar and defining effect on social and cultural psyche of people. Notwithstanding the content that it carries, it’s the media that has transforming powers on the society and people. Thus McLuhan dispenses with the notion that media as a medium can be treated as a passive entity, unresponsive and non-participative in the entire process of information processing that it is facilitating in its capacity as a medium. A television, radio, or telephone engage people irrespective of the content that they deliver and thus extends the role of man through their technological inputs. Before the advent of electrical age, the age of computing and information technology there was ambiguity over the role of medium as the message. But with the instant speed and extent that electricity has provided, media as a medium has certainly become as the message and it contains the potential to institute change, alter the paradigms and establish new cults irrespective of the nature of the content that it carries and delivers. Assisted and buoyed by technology, media extends the role of man. Media as extension of Man Technology plays a central role in McLuhan’s theory of media as extension of man. The extension, as it is apparent, is the extension of the mental faculties, knowledge, approach and culture of the man in the changing world. The electric technology has helped man to grow his conscience and mental capacity to attempt to comprehend things on a far greater scale than ever possible. In words of McLuhan, the stimulation provided by electronic technology represents the final extension in role of man where creativity, knowledge, and consciousness will collectively grow and extend over entire humanity in affecting the extension of man. The role of technology is evident in the process as it’s the diligent pursuance of technology that has brought transformation of world into a global village. People are interacting with each other on changed scales and electric speed, by causing a rapid contraction of social and political forces to create an implosion that increases people’s sense of responsibility and acts on different groups of people to alter their previous positions and integrate them in the new order of things. Commenting on the expanding field of human desire of knowledge, McLuhan says that electric speed and reach has made concept of partial and incomplete knowledge an obsolete thing. Mankind now vie for wholeness, completeness and depth of knowledge, in conformation with the changing form of electric age over its pervious mechanical world. There is a renewed sense of finding out the world once again, armed by newly realized power of electric and computer technology and in its new extension, mankind doesn’t want to accept things in their previous forms. Rather it aims to overthrow imposed patterns and declare the individuality of things and events in totality (McLuhan, 149). The role of new technology in media has always created conflicts and challenges in the society until finally it extends the role of man and then overtaken by new emergent technology. McLuhan presents two strong instances of this fact (McLuhan, ). First when he quotes Alexis De Tocqueville, who was first to master the understanding of print and typography technology, to inform that De Tocqueville had predicted rise of America and relegation of England from their approach and reaction towards the new technology of print in media. England, burdened with its tradition of oral laws, did not fully accept the new technology of print and as such choose to ignore the power of new media. America on the other hand embraced the new technology and hence was benefited immensely by the uniformity and continuity that new technology of print culture had to offer thereby extending their role in the contemporary world. Taking this argument further, McLuhan theory can be stretched to further dimensions that a similar transition is taking place with the advent of new electronic mediums of computer and information technology. In fact, McLuhan himself states that to many people in the contemporary literate world the new media technology would appear as unsettling as the technology of print would appear to tribal natives of remote Africa. Thus the new electric technology guiding media in forms of television, computers, movies, information technology, Internet and mobile phones demands a similar extension of man over rudiments of past age of mechanical technology, detribalizing society senses through its blinding speed and seemingly infinite capacity to channel and process information. In a very pertinent analysis of the new emergent media, riding on electric and communication technology, McLuhan states the new media presents a possibility to completely overrule the cognitive, analytical and cultural traits of the societies it affects because this medium is made much more strong by having its content as another medium which is usually print or speech. The new media gives the power of vision, voice and interaction to an already potent media of print that it integrates in its own design, and in the combined synergy it overpowers the viewers who are left numb and awestruck (McLuhan, 114). The nature of the modern media also plays a very important role in extending the role of human mind and consequentially the whole society.   McLuhan presents his important and famous demarcation of mediums as ‘hot’ and ‘cool’ mediums. A hot medium as defined by McLuhan is one that involves high definition, high data processing, and requires little imagination on the part of viewer. On the other side a cool medium is one that is not high definition, has low amount of data and users have to apply considerable imagination and their own creativity to comprehend the whole picture. Thus categorizing media in these two categories, McLuhan points out that by this definition a radio is a hot medium and a telephone is a cool medium, a movie is a hot medium and TV is cool medium, a photograph is a hot medium and a cartoon is a cool medium. A very important feature of the hot and cool medium emerges by virtue of their definition. A hot medium demands little participation by viewers, in the sense that it is so complete in information that it leaves little for imagination. Similarly, the cool medium is involves a higher participation by people because it leaves many gaps to be filled by audience. Hot and cool media play very different role in affecting the psyche and culture of the society where they unfold. In this context McLuhan states that developed countries having specialized themselves with mechanical technology of past age face the fear of retribalizing by the new electric media whereas the less developed nations that encounter the new technology extend their role by detribalizing themselves. Thus the less developed countries in themselves cool medium, while the developed and highly urbanized western countries are hot medium. The role of media has extended the role of man by changing his very perception of world. While the preceding mechanical age was focused with expanding the horizons of world, rediscovering and redrawing the limits of human knowledge and hence affecting a cultural and knowledge ‘explosion’, the modern technology pushing ahead media has reversed the process by bringing everything together, thus affecting a kind of implosion where entire world practically faces itself through the media. People, willingly or unwillingly, have been clubbed together, sharing the same space with more and more people. The electric media, it can be safely said, thrown every one is every one’s else life. In what can be surely reckoned today as one of the most prophetic statements, McLuhan clearly said that the new electric media has a remarkable capacity to decentralize the functioning of society, a fact that is more than evident in our modern world. But writing in 1960s, McLuhan had predicted that whereas mechanical system requires some fixed centers of operation and hence lead to development of great urban centers, electric power would decentralize the social-cultural space by providing equal opportunity to every place and hence as any place, equipped by power of electric media can act as center. This change and extension of social roles is almost complete today as we can see that through a combination of electric mediums of computer, telephones, video conferencing, Internet, and electric power any room or place can act as the center of large operations. This is the power of new media that is implicit in McLuhan’s writing, transforming every one’s earlier role and nature of functioning. The nature of modern media, acting through computers, Internet and information technology, is all encompassing and sweeping, just in lines of its predecessor forms of media. The theatre, when it emerged took over written form of drama; movies took over all the novels and written work and TV took over the movies. Today computers are perfectly poised over to take over all the forms of media. Radios, Televisions and gramophones helped many hitherto obscured persons for example poets, artists, speakers, and writers to gain recognition world over. Today the power of information technology expands this role further by bringing further convergence of world as we see it. In affecting this convergence it is simultaneously delegating new roles to people that has the responsibility to interact and evolve in much closer proximity of every body else.                           

Strategic Management Accounting

STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING This report will attempt to explain what Strategic Management Accounting (SMA) is, how it developed, why Traditional Management Accounting (TMA) is not sufficient to provide information for strategic decisions and the difference between SMA and TMA. It will further outline some of the essential analytical tools or techniques in SMA such as Activity Based Costing (ABC) and the Balanced Scorecard (BSC). SMA is an extremely broad concept, so in order to give a bird’s eye view of the subject this report mainly focus on comparing SMA to TMA and finally describes the importance and criticisms of SMA.What is Strategic Management Accounting? â€Å"A form of management accounting in which emphasis is placed on information which relates to factors external to the firm, as well as non-financial information and internally generated information. † (CIMA Official Terminology) â€Å"Strategic management accounting is a crucially important activity beca use it is outward-looking. It focuses specifically on the market, hence its common description as market-driven accounting. The main data it produces is on customers, products and competitors.This is softer in form than the hard numbers associated with financial reporting, but it forms a part of the inclusive strategy process that is linked to the pursuit of competitive advantage. † (Roslender and Hart, 2006) As mentioned above, SMA emphasis on information external to the firm, such as information about competitors and customers, and non-financial information such as product quality and customer satisfaction, along with emphasising on firm’s internal factors such as information regarding company’s overheads and management of raw materials.The professional strategic management accountant engages with the organization’s top management team and contributes to strategy development and implementation with the aim of creating customer value and a strong competit ive position for the organisation. The business environment has undergone significant changes due to globalisation and developments in information and production technologies (Burgstahler et al. 2007). Trading on a global stage with exponentially advancement in technology has indirectly and radically ffected the traditional management system. These sudden changes have generated the need for Traditional Management Accounting, which is preoccupied with numbers and accounting measures to shift to the next level, which is to focus on value addition and integration within a company. Strategic Management Accounting VS Traditional Management Accounting The three main limitations of Traditional Management Accounting (TMA) are, first, TMA information was acquired from the existing financial accounting information systems.As a result the focus generally remained on annual periodical targets and internal accounting systems thus failing in providing accurate and holistic information that mirror s the technology, products, and complexity of the operational processes on the one hand and on the other hand failing in integrating these for operating in a highly competitive environment (Baines and Langfield-Smith, 2003). Second, its aggregated form renders it less useful for a manager who wants information to be customised according to the specific managerial needs.Third, the window dressing applied by financial accountants to make it look good to the external users makes it less reliable for managerial decision making. Just as TMA was developed and introduced as a recipe for the shortcomings of the traditional cost accounting textbooks, SMA has, arguably, been launched by the accounting scholars as the new state of the art discipline. It has been claimed that the development of the field of SMA would render the old fashioned TMA extinct as the newer version focuses not only on the internal financial information, but also upon the external aspects of the business operations (Smi th 2005).Simmonds (1981), who is credited with phrasing SMA, differentiates it from TMA on the basis of its greater focus on the comparison of the business with its competitors. Bromwich, (1990) contends that SMA enables the management to have a bird’s eye view of the competitors’ procedure and business techniques business and to take decisions accordingly. In this way a major hallmark of SMA is its inclusion of non-financial aspects for the purpose of decision making. Lords (1996) identifies the following functions which are commonly associated with SMA: 1.Collecting information related to the competitors. 2. Using accounting for strategic decisions. 3. Cutting costs on the basis of strategic decisions. 4. And, gaining competitive advantage through it. Wilson and Chua (1993) tabulate ten key differences between MA and SMA as following: | Traditional MA| Strategic MA| 1| Historical| Prospective| 2| Single entity| Relative| 3| Introspective| Out-ward looking| 4| Manufac turing focus| Competitive focus| 5| Existing activities| Possibilities| 6| Reactive| Proactive| | Programmed| Un-programmed| 8| Data orientation| Information oriented| 9| Based on existing systems| Unconstrained by existing systems| 10| Built on conventions| Ignores conventions| Critics have regularly complained that TMA focuses too much on internal business functions of accounting in order to meet the requirements of the internal managers. Some argues that while special attention is given to the internal affairs of the business sight is lost of the external opportunities and potential business threats.The underlying assumption of this discipline is that it improves upon the traditional management accounting by enlarging its scope and realigning it more tightly with other disciplines such as strategy and marketing. Some of the analytical tools which were developed in the fields of strategy and marketing, which are now considered an essential part of SMA toolbox, are: Attribute Costi ng: In this costing system the attributes of a product are emphasised, including the products features, certain purchase agreements, or after-sale services.The information inspected, however, has to be relevant to current or future competitors. Competitor Cost Assessment: Taking advantage of the increasing trend of readily accessing available information, the competitors’ costs (production, labour, raw materials) are keenly analysed. Bromwich (1990) stresses the need for studying competitor’s costs as understanding them helps in managing a business’s own costs. Competitor Appraisal Based on Financial Statements: It is another effective oncept as it permits comparison and benchmarking, information contained in financial statements can be strategically used with the help of ratio analysis. The Balanced Scorecard (BSC): The BSC was proposed by Kaplan and Norton (1992) in which financial and non-financial measures were integrated for strategic performance management purpose. It aimed to create a balance by linking vision and strategy of the business with multi-dimensional perspective of customers, internal business processes, learning and growth, and financial position.Strategic Costing: A further concept of relevance as costs are broken down to measure them for strategic relevance, such as matching the amount competitors spend on areas such as marketing and pricing. Valuing Customers as Assets: It is a concept that illustrates the importance of a customer or particular group of customers, Guilding and McManus (2002) state that it can be assessed through a method where the present values of estimated profits are discounted from the trading correlation of particular customers.Value Chain Costing: The technique has been developed from value chain analysis proposed by Porter (1985) for gaining competitive advantage. In this analysis all value-creating activities related to the development of a product or service is linked in the form of a chain. Those activities which are vital for adding value are given more importance. Activity Based Costing (ABC): The ABC is a costing system in which manufacturing overhead costs are assigning to products through a cogent approach, as opposed to allocating the costs on the basis of a predetermined rate.It initially assigns costs to an activity that is directly linked to overheads; and subsequently assigns the costs to those products that require the production activities. Disadvantages of Strategic Management Accounting Some argue that Management accountants do not have a set of policies and procedures to follow, as financial accountants follow accounting procedures and principles outlined by IFRS committee or GAAP. Strategic accountants form their own standards and therefore information cannot be compared from company to company as in financial accounting.Another form of criticism is that strategic accountants focus mainly on quantitative information, and quantitative information obtaine d are very rational. The drawback with focusing mainly at rational information is that other relevant and crucial information may be ignored. For example, they might determine a new office should be built at a specific location because wage and taxes are lower; however they might have failed to look at the bigger picture by only focusing on quantitative information.Since there is no standard procedure or principle to follow, strategic accountants add their own personal beliefs and feelings into making decisions. Free of bias is next to impossible but even if there is one, requires individuals that can focus on the entire job at hand and take all factors into consideration. Expensive Conclusion: Strategic Management Accounting involves major decisions, business choices, and actions of organisation by using both financial and non-financial information with a greater focus on the comparison of the business with its competitors.Implementation of SMA tools provides a sustainable competit ive advantage for the company to build a stable economic position within the industry. TMA focuses too much on internal business functions and that result in lost of the external opportunities and potential business threats. Despite the disadvantages mentioned above, it can be concluded that SMA improves upon the traditional management accounting by enlarging its scope with other disciplines such as strategy and marketing. Bibliography: 1. Baines, A. And Langfield-Smith, K. 2003), ‘Antecedents to management accounting change: a structural equation approach’. Accounting Organizations and Society, 28 (7-8). 2. Burgstahler, D. , Horngren, C. T. , Schatzberg, J. , Stratton, W. O. And Sundem, G. L. (2007), Introduction to management accounting, 14th ed. , Pearson/Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. 3. Smith, M (2005), Performance measurement and management: a strategic approach to management accounting, SAGE, London. 4. Simmonds K, (1981), ‘Strategic Management Acco unting’, Management Accounting, 59(4), 26-29. 5. Bromwich, M. (1990).The case for strategic management accounting: The role of accounting information for strategy in competitive markets. Accounting, Organisation and Society. 15 (1-2), 27-46. 6. Lord, R. (1996). Strategic Management Accounting: The Emperor’s New Clothes? , Management Accounting Research, 7 (3). 7. Wilson, R. M. S. And Chua, W. F. (1993) Managerial accounting : method and meaning/Richard M. S. Wilson, Wai Fong Chua ;series edited by Richard M. S Wilson Chapman &Hall, London ; New York: 8. Kaplan, R and Norton, D (2002). The balanced scorecard. USA: Harvard Business Press. 92-225. 9. Guilding, C. , and McManus, L. , (2002), The Incidence, perceived merit and antecedents of customer accounting: an exploratory note, Accounting, Organization and Society, 27, 45-59. 10. Ehow. The disadvantages of strategic management accounting http://www. ehow. com/list_6793416_disadvantages-strategic-management-accounting. html 11. Robin Roslender, Susan J. Hart, (2006) â€Å"Interfunctional cooperation in progressing accounting for brands: The case for brand management accounting†, Journal of Accounting & Organizational Change, Vol. 2 Iss: 3, pp. 229 – 247

Saturday, September 14, 2019

Analysis and Questions for the poem Daddy Essay

1. Discuss the poet’s use of apostrophe in its direct address to the father figure. How does Plath stage that address as a kind of declaration of independence in the decisive tone with which she at once judges and dismisses the father? The poem Daddy, written by Sylvia Plath, is a text which reveals to the reader, the nature of the persona’s relationship with her father as well as the impact that her father’s death had on her. Being a confessional poem, the reader can assume that it is about Plath herself. The purpose of this poem is so that Plath can purge herself of her emotions as she feels abandoned by her father after his death. The very title gives away the fact that Plath’s emotional growth has been stunted and that she feels like an abandoned child. Throughout the poem, Plath uses many stylistic devices. She is successful in creating a tone of hatred, disgust, and finality. Relationships with men were not her strong point by any means, and Plath’s negative attitude towards men is clear. One of her stylistic devices is the use of apostrophe. An apostrophe in a poem is a group of words that are spoken to a person who is absent or imaginary, or to an object or abstract idea. In the poem, the speaker’s use of apostrophe illustrates an attitude of power. Apostrophe is the next best thing to talking directly to the father, which is impossible, as he is dead. The speaker has conquered her fears, she was able to kill the father inside of her, and an ultimate demonstration of power is the ability to address someone directly, without having to hide behind the cloak of a method other than the second person. In the last lines, the apostrophe gives more power to the poem. â€Å"Daddy, daddy, you bastard,† has more effect on the audience than, â€Å"Daddy was a bastard.† 2. Consider how the poet’s sing-song rhyme pattern of the opening stanza darkly invokes a childhood world of Mother Goose rhymes appropriate to the poet’s regression back into the role of daughter to the dead patriarch. The structure of the poem is similar to that of a nursery rhyme, which reveals Plath’s child mentality. An analysis of the straight rhyme scheme lulls the reader into a hypnotic state and the language is relatively free from the kind of ominous and dark imagery and terms that will arrive as the poem by Sylvia Plath progresses. This nursery rhyme’s innocence is obliterated quickly with each and with the images and language of Nazism and several weighty references to horrible wars. The first stanza writes: You do not do, you do not do Any more, black shoe In which I have lived like a foot For thirty years, poor and white, In this stanza, the poem starts with the speaker declaring that she will no longer put up with the black shoe she’s lived in, poor and scared, for thirty years. She uses the second person throughout the poem, saying â€Å"you,† who, as we find out, is â€Å"Daddy.† This means that she is comparing her father to a shoe that she has been living in very unhappily, however, she is not going to put up with it anymore. This stanza reminds the reader of a nursery rhyme – the old woman who lived in a shoe. The repetition of â€Å"you do not do† in the first line even makes this stanza sound a little singsong-y. But this is no happy nursery rhyme – the speaker is poor, and won’t dare to breathe or sneeze, meaning that she feels trapped and scared. 3. How does Plath capture the ambiguity of her relation to the dead patriarch in her pun on the word through in the last lines of the poem? The poem reaches its crescendo with the line â€Å"Daddy, daddy, you bastard, I’m through†. The speaker has threatened that she’s through with her father before, in line 68. But the repetition of the word â€Å"Daddy† here, the addition of the word â€Å"bastard,† and the phrase â€Å"I’m through† makes this condemnation final. Before this, the speaker has used the word â€Å"Daddy† only four times in an 80-line poem, not counting the title. Using this affectionate term for father twice in the last line makes it sound almost like she’s beating on his chest to get her point across. The use of the word â€Å"bastard† seems to be what this poem has worked itself up to. The speaker has tried out every way possible to criticize her father – he’s a Nazi, the devil, and a vampire. But, in the end, she just wanted to get out a good verbal punch, calling her father a bastard. Furthermore, in this line, the contrast brings to light the destructive conflict in the speaker’s mind, that of loving and hating her addressee simultaneously. 4. The poem draws an analogy between women’s oppression and that of the Jewish victims of the Nazi death camps. Do you think this analogy is appropriate? The themes prevalent in this poem are oppression and emancipation. The notion of oppression is evident when Plath uses the metaphors Nazi’ and Jew’ to describe her father and herself. This imago connotes that she is dependent on her father for survival as well as the fact that she is battling an internal war inside her and that she at this point, is a victim because of her father’s abandonment. Her mental suffering is further reinforced by the allusions to the Nazi concentration camps, as it reinforces the fact that she is a victim and that she is unable to escape from the psychological hold that her father has on her. This analogy does make sense in the poem however it is a very drastic and dramatic example.

Friday, September 13, 2019

The Consequences for Women of the 1867 Reform Act Essay

The Consequences for Women of the 1867 Reform Act - Essay Example According to Paula Bartley, this could be compared to the slave trade, â€Å"Is one half of the human species, like the poor African slaves, to be subject to prejudices that brutalise them...only to sweeten the cup of men† (Bartley, 2007). The consequences for the suffrage movements The Great Reform Act of 1832 in the United Kingdom was started by Jeremy Bentham and William Thompson. During this time, United Kingdom had become so corrupt because the constituencies were represented by rich land owners. Elections were unfair because there were many cases of bribery and corruption. Also, by the year 1812, many women practiced prostitution highly in the United Kingdom. Prostitution was fueled by the social, literacy and cultural behaviors of the people living in England. This is the time when many associations were formed with an objective of bringing change and social purity (Bartley, 2007). A centre for home of friendless girls was introduced to educate the young girls on the ne ed for obedience and self control. This was due to the unhygienic nature of the practice since it led to contagious diseases. The reformers explained the causes of prostitution and came up with a strategy to educate the youth on positive change. Industrial capitalism also changed and minimized prostitution. â€Å"Surely, it will not be denied that woman have, and ought to have opinions of their own on subjects of public interest, and on the events which arise as the world goes its way† (Bartley, 2007).This led to the second reform act in 1867. . In 1819, Charles Woolsey won the elections and went to the House of Commons to initiate change as the legislative representative. Also, the committee of Manchester which consisted of twenty thousand to sixty thousand people appointed a representative attorney. In 1820s, parliament neglected new reforms. This was when John Russell disagreed with the corrupt activities of the parliamentary members. The Great Reform Act was proposed by J ohn Russell in the year 1830 after the death of King George. It was after the dissolution of the parliament, and the general elections were to be held. Birmingham political union started its campaigns under the leadership of Thomas Attwood. The campaigners put emphasis on the issue of reforms as this bill was pending in the previous parliamentary sittings. After the elections three reform bills passed to the parliament and through subsequent debates the bills were then amended to be the Great reform act in the year 1832. After this act, political education began whereby politics and social education were introduced to the local citizens. After the great reform, there was insufficient voter registration exercise and most people did not have the votes. Bribery and corruption remained to be a significant problem in the governance. During the ensuing years, corruption wars started up to the year 1854 when the corruption practices act passed into law by the parliament. Civil wars began w hich aimed at changing the structure of governance in England. There were outstanding family problems in the society. Divorce cases had increased. This act separated sex from reproduction. Same sex had become so prominent in the society. Sexual and social reforms in the society were the campaign strategies by the reform parties. In certain areas like New Jersey, the law allowed only