Wednesday, July 31, 2019
Thea.Ã¢â¬ Dani was shaking her arm. Ã¢â¬ËThey're talking to you.Ã¢â¬ The visions were gone. Thea was standing in Gran's workshop, seeing everything as if through a distorting lens. People's faces seemed to stretch; their voices seemed to drag. Ã¢â¬Å"I asked, how did you learn the invocation for summoning spirits?Ã¢â¬ Gran said slowly. Eric. He won't wait; he'll start without me. Or will he? I told him not to. But he'll be worrying about the partyÃ¢â¬ ¦. The party. All those kidsÃ¢â¬ ¦ even little kids. Humans, but people. like baby chicks with a hawk up above. How many of them will end up like Kevin? Ã¢â¬Å"The invocation for summoning spirits!Ã¢â¬ Gran was shouting, as if Thea were hard of hearing. Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬ ¦ weÃ¢â¬ ¦ I heard you at Samhain two years ago. In Vermont. I saw the summoning the Inner Circle did.Ã¢â¬ Even her own voice sounded weird and distorted. Ã¢â¬Å"We saw you. Both of us. We were hiding behind the trees and you never even noticed,Ã¢â¬ Blaise said clearly, and the bells rang again. Dimly, Thea felt appreciation. But most of her mind was reeling from horrible thought to thought. EricÃ¢â¬ ¦ but if I try to get to him, if the Inner Circle finds out he's involvedÃ¢â¬ ¦ that will get him killed. A human who knows about the Night World. Immediate death sentence. But Suzanne. If he burns those dummies, Suzanne will kill him the way she killed Kevin. No matter what happened, Eric was going to end up dead. UnlessÃ¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬Å"WhichÃ¢â¬ ¦ of the spiritsÃ¢â¬ ¦ did you call?Ã¢â¬ Gran was shouting, as if Thea was now not only hard of hearing but slow of understanding. UnlessÃ¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬Å"That's what I want to tell you,Ã¢â¬ Thea said. She could see the way. It would mean the end for her, but she might possibly save Eric. If there was enough time, if they would let her alone, if Eric wasn't right now trying to be a heroÃ¢â¬ ¦. Ã¢â¬Å"I want to tell you about it,Ã¢â¬ Thea said again. And then the words were tumbling out in a rush, faster and faster, as if some dam had broken inside her. Ã¢â¬Å"And I'll tell you everything-but please, Grandma, please, you have to let me go out now. Just for a little while. There's something I have to do. You have to let me go, and then I'll come back here and you can do whatever you want to me.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Hold on a minute,Ã¢â¬ Mother Cybele said, but Thea couldn't stop. Ã¢â¬Å"Please-please. Grandma. I've done a terrible thing-and I'm the only one who can take care of it. I'll come back-Ã¢â¬Å" Ã¢â¬Å"Wait, wait, wait. Calm down,Ã¢â¬ Gran said. She looked agitated herself. Ã¢â¬Å"What's this rush all of sudden? Try it slowly. What do you think you have to do?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I have to put her back.Ã¢â¬ Thea saw that she was going to have to give some explanation. She tried to speak dearly and slowly, to make them understand. Ã¢â¬Å"The spirit I let out, Grandma. Her name is Suzanne Blanchet and she was burned in the sixteen hundreds. And she's out, out there, and she's already killed a human.Ã¢â¬ Everyone was listening now, some leaning forward, some frowning. Thea looked around at the circle of faces, talking to all of them. She was still terrified, but what did that matter? Eric mattered. Ã¢â¬Å"Last week she killed a boy at my high school. And tonight she's going to kill more people, at the high school Halloween party. I can't explain how I know-there isn't time. But I do know. And I'm the only one who can stop her. I called her; I'm the only one who can put her back.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Yes, but unfortunately it's not that easy,Ã¢â¬ a low voice said. Thea turned and identified Rhys, a wiry man in a white lab coat. Ã¢â¬Å"If the spirit's at large-Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I know about that, but I have a way to trap her. It's all set up, and IÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ Thea hesitated. Ã¢â¬Å"I've tricked somebody into helping me,Ã¢â¬ she said slowly. Ã¢â¬Å"And he's in danger right now. Which is why you have to let me go, let me take care of this. Please.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"You want to go to the high school, where the party is,Ã¢â¬ Aunt Ursula said. Although her lips were as thin as ever, she didn't sound angry. More-astute. Thea opened her mouth to say no, and then stopped, confused again. The party-or the desert? If Suzanne was really killing people at the party, she should go there. But only if Eric wasn't doing something to attract Suzanne to the desert. He was still more important to her than anyone else. But if he wasn't doing something-and if Suzanne was at the party-she might kill before Thea and Eric could lure herÃ¢â¬ ¦. I'm going crazy. She felt, literally, as if she might faint. Her head was swimming. There were too many possibilities. It all depended on where Suzanne was right now, and there was no way to know that. Thea began to shake violently, black dots dancing in front of her eyes. I don't know what to do. Ã¢â¬Å"I'm sorryÃ¢â¬ ¦ could everybody listen for a moment? I'm seeing something.Ã¢â¬ It was Aradia's voice, quiet and gently self-possessed. Mature, even though she was only a little older than Thea. Thea tried to see her through the black dots. Ã¢â¬Å"I think it's something important, something about what we're talking about,Ã¢â¬ Aradia said. Her beautiful face, with its smooth skin the color of coffee with cream, was turned toward Thea. Her wide brown eyes looked straight ahead without focus, the way they always did. Aradia couldn't see with those eyes-but then she didn't need to. She saw with her mind-and saw things that were hidden to most people. Ã¢â¬Å"I'm seeing a boy-he's dressed in some old-fashioned costume. He's beside a fire, inside a circle of stones.Ã¢â¬ EricÃ¢â¬ ¦. Ã¢â¬Å"He's got a stick-an ember. He's looking around. Now he's going toÃ¢â¬ ¦ it looks like a scarecrow. I can't see it well. There's a pile of sticks underneath it. He's bending. He's lighting the sticks.Ã¢â¬ No. Ã¢â¬Å"I have to go,Ã¢â¬ Thea said. She wasn't asking permission anymore. Aradia was still speaking. Ã¢â¬Å"Okay, the sticks are catching fire. Now I can see betterÃ¢â¬ ¦ and it's not a scarecrow; it looks sort of like a witch. A doll.Ã¢â¬ She stopped, her lovely blind eyes widening. Ã¢â¬Å"It's-and it's moving-no, there's something moving it. I can see it now-a spirit. A spirit is moving the doll. It's coming out now-toward the boy-Ã¢â¬Å" Ã¢â¬Å"I have to go,Ã¢â¬ Thea said. And then she was moving, pushing her way between Rhys and Old Bob, breaking out of the circle. The beads of the curtain struck her face, clattering as they fell back behind her. Ã¢â¬Å"Thea, wait a minute!Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Thea, come back here!Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Ursula, you go get her-Ã¢â¬Å" The jeep. My backpack's in the jeep. I have to get it first. The keys to the Lincoln were hanging on a nail by the back door. Thea grabbed them. She pushed the back door open just as three or four people came hurrying through the bead curtain. She slammed the door in their faces. Get to the car. Fast. Now drive. She backed out of the alley, tires squealing. She could see light spill as the door to the shop opened, but by then she was turning onto Barren Street. She found herself driving at some new level, squeezing through the tail end of yellow lights, recognizing shortcuts in the dark. In just a few minutes she was at the Night World club with the jack-o'-lanterns on the porch. There was no place to park the Lincoln. She left it in the middle of the street, with the keys still in the ignition. She pulled the key to the jeep out of her belt and jumped in. Hurry. Hurry. She burned rubber again getting the jeep moving. Hurry. The freeway. Just let me get to him. And let it not be too late. That's all I ask, after that I don't care. Would you give up everything? The voice didn't seem like a stranger this time, didn't seem menacing. Just curious. And Thea had an answer. Yes. If I can just get there, in time, I can send him away. I can tell him some story, make him go somehow. Make him hide. I'll tell the Circle I tricked him or enchanted him into helping; I won't even tell them his name. They can't make me. Whatever they do to me, he'll be safe. That's all I care about. That's all I'm asking. But even that was a lot, and she knew it, so she kept her foot mashed down on the gas pedal. Freeway off ramp. Side road. She drove crazily fast. The pounding inside her head kept saying hurry, hurry, even as she was careening off curbs. Desert. Now the road was bad. It was hard to see; the moon was almost down. The jeep lunged over bumps and lurched into potholes. Eric, be doing something. Be talking to her, be running. You're so smart, please, please, be smart now. Keep her distracted, keep her hair away from your neck. How strong was a spirit? Thea didn't know. Please, I see everything so clearly now. I've been selfish, only thinking of me, what would make me happy. All that Ã¢â¬Å"encased in iceÃ¢â¬ garbage. I should have been dancing in the street. As long as Eric is all right, I don't care if he lives on Mars, I don't care if I never see him again. As long as he's well I'm happier than anybody has a right to be. A jolt rattled her teeth. She was off the road now, driving by landmarks. Through forests of dead yuccas that looked like skinny gray Cousin Its. It's taking so long, it's too long. Hurry. Hurry. She could see red sandstone in front of her. Pillars in the headlights. That's it! Go, go! The jeep rocketed over clumps of blackbrush. She could see fire in the depression between the pillars. She drove straight toward it. Fire-movement-the top of a silhouetteÃ¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬Å"Eric!Ã¢â¬ She was yelling even as she slammed on the brakes. The jeep ground to a shuddering stop a few inches from a misshapen sandstone tower. Ã¢â¬Å"Eric!Ã¢â¬ She had the backpack in her hand. She tore the door open and jumped out, running. Ã¢â¬Å"Thea! Stay out of here!Ã¢â¬ She saw him. The light of the fire cast an eerie glow onto the already lurid sandstone. Everything seemed red, as if this place were bathed in blood. The roar of the jeep's engine and the roar of the fire merged to sound like the flames of hell. But Brie was alive and fighting. Fighting it. Thea threw herself at it, even as her brain was registering impressions. A wraith shape that looked at one second like a woman, and the next second like tattered clouds. Part of it seemed to be coiled around Eric, and he had both hands at his throat. Bits of the pine-needle amulet Thea had made for him were scattered around his feet. Useless. Ã¢â¬Å"Get away from him! I'm the one who set this up!Ã¢â¬ Thea screamed. She reached Eric and grabbed wildly at the wraith, at the part of it around his throat. Her hands felt Eric's hands, felt cold air. Ã¢â¬Å"No-Thea, watch out-Ã¢â¬Å" She saw the thing come free of Eric, who staggered. She saw it re-form, gather, then dive straight for her. Ã¢â¬Å"Thea!Ã¢â¬ Eric knocked her sideways. Cold air rushed by. She and Eric fell in a heap. She gasped Ã¢â¬Å"Eric, go,Ã¢â¬ even before she got up. She tried to shove at him, looking around for the wraith. Ã¢â¬Å"Go-get out of here! The jeep's running-get in and just drive. I'll call you later.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Stay back to back,Ã¢â¬ Eric said breathlessly. Ã¢â¬Å"She's incredibly fast.Ã¢â¬ He added through his teeth, Ã¢â¬Å"You know I'm not leaving.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"This is witch stuff, you jerk!Ã¢â¬ she snarled, standing back to back. Ã¢â¬Å"I don't want you. You'll just get in my way!Ã¢â¬ It was a valiant effort. She even managed to inject something like hatred into her voice. And Eric wasn't perfect. He turned around, grabbed her by the shoulder, and yelled, Ã¢â¬Å"You know I'm not going, so don't waste any more time!Ã¢â¬ Then he shoved her sideways again and freezing wind streaked by her cheek, leaving her ear numb. Ã¢â¬Å"Sorry,Ã¢â¬ he said in his normal voice. Ã¢â¬Å"You okay?Ã¢â¬ Thea spun and looked behind her. The wraith was bobbing there. It was shaped like a woman made of vapor, with arms and legs only suggested, but with a long tail of hair that whipped around. Ã¢â¬Å"I've got the stuff,Ã¢â¬ Thea muttered to Eric. Admit- ting she knew he'd never leave. Ã¢â¬Å"But it'll take a few minutes to do the spell. We'll have to keep out of-Ã¢â¬ She was watching the lashing tail, but she wasn't fast enough. There was a sound-something between the snap of a whip and the crackle of electricity- and the tail flashed out. It was around her neck. At first it just felt cold. Insubstantial but icy, like a scarf of subzero wind. But then the wraith gave a jerk and it tightened and it did have substance. It felt like metal, like a pipe full of supercooled liquid, like the tentacle of some alien creature with ice for blood. It was choking her. She couldn't breathe and she couldn't get her fingers under it. It squeezed tighter, hurting her. She could feel her eyes start to bulge. Ã¢â¬Å"Look at me!Ã¢â¬ Eric yelled. He had a stick that was blazing at one end and he was dancing up and down like a crazy person on the other side of the fire. Ã¢â¬Å"Look! Suzanne! I'm going to get your little sister!Ã¢â¬ He poked the burning stick at the dummy Lucienne, not at the wood piled around her, but at the actual doll. Ã¢â¬Å"There! There! How do you like that?Ã¢â¬ He jabbed at the doll. A ring of fire blossomed in the black clothes. Ã¢â¬Å"Confess you're a witch!Ã¢â¬ Thea felt something slide away and her neck was free. She tried to shout a warning to Eric, but all that came out was a croak. He was already diving to one side anyway. That must be what he's been doing all this time. Dodging. Ã¢â¬Å"Eric, keep it up!Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Okay, but work fast!Ã¢â¬ He threw himself the other way. She forced herself to turn her attention from him. Her backpack was at the edge of the circle where she'd dropped it. She grabbed it and dumped the contents out on the ground. She had to do this right and she had to do it faster than she'd ever worked a spell before. Oak and ash. She threw them on the central fire, then scooted toward it, dragging the other materials close with a sweep of her arm. She ripped open a plastic bag and grabbed the quassia chips. They were light, and she had to thrust her hand into the flames to make sure they actually went in the fire. Blessed thistle was powder; she threw it. Mandrake root was solid, she threw it, too. She had just grabbed the ounce vial when Eric shouted, Ã¢â¬Å"Thea, duck.Ã¢â¬ She didn't look up to see what she was ducking. She fell flat instantly. It saved her. Icy wind blew her hair almost into the fire. Ã¢â¬Å"Suzanne!Ã¢â¬ Eric was yelling. Ã¢â¬Å"I've got your brother! Look!Ã¢â¬ There were fires at all three stakes now, and Eric was dashing between them, poking at one figure after another. Thea pulled the plastic cap off the vial with her teeth. She shook it into the fire, her hand in the flames again. One, two, three. The fire roared up, louder than ever, and pure blue. Thea fell back from it. Ã¢â¬Å"Suzanne! Over here!Ã¢â¬ Eric's voice was faint beyond the roar. Tears were running down Thea's face, her nose and eyes stinging from the acrid smell. She fumbled for the last object necessary for the sending-backÃ¢â¬ ¦ the bag of residue from the bronze bowl. She took a handful in her left hand and dropped it between two charcoaled logs at the edge of the fire. Then she stood up-and saw that Eric was in trouble. He'd lost his burning stick. The wraith had him by the throat and it was whirling him around, changing shape every second. His mouth was open, but Thea couldn't hear any sound. Ã¢â¬Å"May I be given the Power of the Words of HecateÃ¢â¬ She screamed it, into the roaring fire, toward the wheeling, changing spirit shape. And the words came, rolling off her tongue with a power of their own: Ã¢â¬Å"From the heart of the flameÃ¢â¬ ¦ I send you back! Through the narrow pathÃ¢â¬ ¦ I send you back!Ã¢â¬ She put all her own power into the words, too, screaming them with an authority that she'd never felt in herself before. Because the wraith was fighting. It didn't want to go anywhere. Ã¢â¬Å"To the airy voidÃ¢â¬ ¦ I send you back! Through the mist of yearsÃ¢â¬ ¦ I send you back!Ã¢â¬ Eric staggered, was jerked sideways. He seemed to be lifted off his feet by the wraith. Ã¢â¬Å"To beyond the veilÃ¢â¬ ¦ I send you back! Go speedily, conveniently, and without delay!Ã¢â¬ Eric's feet were kicking in the air. This is how Kevin died, Thea realized suddenly and with absolute certainty. She found herself yelling words she'd never heard before. Ã¢â¬Å"By the power of Earth and Air and Water! By the power of Fire on this night of Hecate! By my own power as a daughter of Hellewise! Go speedily, conveniently and without delay, you bitch!Ã¢â¬ She had no idea where that came from. But the next instant Eric fell. The wraith had dropped him. It shot toward Thea-but then it stopped as if it had slammed into an invisible brick wall. It was directly over the fire. Caught. The blue flames were belching smoke-but sideways. Thea could see the wraith dearly above them. And for the first time, it didn't look like a cloud shape. It looked like a woman. A girl. Older than Thea, but still in her teens. With long dark hair that floated around her and a pale face and huge sad eyes. Her lips were parted as if she were trying to speak. Thea stared. She heard herself whisper, Ã¢â¬Å"SuzanneÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ The girl held out a pale hand toward her. But at the same moment the fire flared up again. It seemed to turn the girl's hair to fire, too. Dark fire was burning all around her and there was an expression of infinite sadness on her face. Thea reached out a hand instinctively- The fire roared- And there was a flash like lightning. Suzanne had been drawn to the heart of the flame. And now the lightning formed a cone: the narrow path. Plastic bags and other debris whipped around the circle as if caught in a whirlwind. Suzanne and the cone of white lightning disappeared into each other. To the airy void. Through the mist of years. The fire flared up above Thea's head, and then sank down. The blue seemed to fall to the bottom. The flames turned yellow, like ordinary fire. It was as if a curtain had been drawn. To beyond the veil. That was where Suzanne was now. At the edge of the bonfire, where the residue had been, there was a lump of soft clay. Thea knelt and picked it up. She looked into the center of the flames-and saw a coil of long hair, the color of mahogany. The ends were starting to blacken and shrink in the fire. Thea reached in to grab it. She folded the hair over and quickly pressed the clay around it. It was a clumsy job, Blaise would have done much better, but the hair was enclosed. She groped on the ground for the wooden seal, found it, punched it into the clay. Suzanne's symbol, the cabalistic sign for her name, was printed. It was done. The amulet was restored, Suzanne was trapped again. She'd stay where she belonged unless somebody else was stupid enough to summon her. Thea dropped the amulet without looking at it, got up, and staggered around the fire to where Eric was lying. Her vision was strangely gray. After all thisÃ¢â¬ ¦ he has to be all rightÃ¢â¬ ¦ oh, please, let him beÃ¢â¬ ¦ He moved when she reached him. Ã¢â¬Å"Eric, we did it. She's gone. We did it.Ã¢â¬ He grinned faintly. Said in a scratchy voice, Ã¢â¬Å"You don't have to cry.Ã¢â¬ She hadn't realized she was. Eric sat up. He was terminally mussed, his hair wild, his face dirty. He looked wonderful to her. Ã¢â¬Å"We did it,Ã¢â¬ she whispered again. She reached out to smooth his hair, and her hand stayed there. He glanced at the fire, then back at her. Ã¢â¬Å"I kind of hated to say those things to her. I mean, no matter how bad she wasÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ He touched Thea's neck, stroking gently. Ã¢â¬Å"Are you okay? I think you've got a bruise.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Me? You're the one who really got it.Ã¢â¬ She put her free hand to his throat, fingers just barely touching. Ã¢â¬Å"But I know what you mean,Ã¢â¬ she whispered. Ã¢â¬Å"I felt-sorry-for her at the end.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Don't cry again. Please. I really hate that,Ã¢â¬ he whispered, and he put his free arm around her. And then they were just kissing madly. Deliriously. Laughing and kissing and holding each other. She could taste her own tears on his lips, warming with his warmth, and she was trembling like a bird in a thicket. A few moments later a noise broke in. Thea didn't want to move, but Eric looked, and then he stiffened. Ã¢â¬Å"Uh, we've got company.Ã¢â¬ Thea looked up. There were cars just outside the sandstone pillars. Parked cars. They must have driven up sometime during the fight with Suzanne, while the roar of the fire blocked out the sound of their engines, while Thea's attention was focused on the wraith trying to Ml her. Because the people were already out of the cars. Grandma Harman, supported by Aunt Ursula. Rhys in his lab coat. Dumpling-shaped Mother Cybele, with her hand on Aradia's arm. Old Bob, Nans Buruku. Most of the Inner Circle was here.
Tuesday, July 30, 2019
The following question asks you to write a clear essay that analyzes South CarolinaÃ¢â¬â¢s reasons for seceding from the Union. Use both the documents listed on next two pages and your knowledge of the time period. You may also use the time line you previously completed. (100 points) 1. What were South CarolinaÃ¢â¬â¢s stated reasons for seceding from the United States in December, 1860? Do you believe that the stated reasons were the complete explanation for South CarolinaÃ¢â¬â¢s secession? Was South Carolina justified in seceding? Explain your answer in a well-organized essay that demonstrates your understanding of the documents and your knowledge of the time period.Ã Answer: In my opinion, South Carolina only has one reason for seceding from the United States. South Carolina wrote down all of their reasons why for succeeding. Although, I believe that their reasons were not complete or had enough Ã¢â¬Å"goodÃ¢â¬ reasoning. South Carolina only had one really good reason for seceding. I believe South Carolina did not have enough powerful reasons for seceding. Throughout South CarolinaÃ¢â¬â¢s Secession, They mainly discussed the Government and how the United States takes care of us. They also discussed what they donÃ¢â¬â¢t like about the United States Government. South Carolina also talked about the mistakes and feelings they had about the United States Constitution. This proves they only had one reason for seceding. In excerpt one and two below, South Carolina starts talking about freedom and the rights United States had at that time. In excerpt two, it states; Ã¢â¬Å"An amendment was added [to the United States Constitution], which declared that the powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States, respectively, or to the people.Ã¢â¬ This statement says that South Carolina believed they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have any say in where they lived or how they ruled. In excerpt four, they continued this discussion. People from South Carolina, kept saying how they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t agree with the United States Constitution. They proved this statement by saying; Ã¢â¬Å"These ends it endeavored to accomplish by a Federal Government, in which each State was recognized as an equal, and had separate control over its own institutions.Ã¢â¬ The people of South Carolina said this like itÃ¢â¬â¢s a bad thing. This statement also proved that how much they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t agree with The United States Government. The reasons why South Carolina seceded from The United States still are not good enough reasons. I still believe they should have had more than one reason to become their own government. I believe their reasons werenÃ¢â¬â¢t justified reasons and the statements above proved this. South Carolina could have prove a lot more reasons to secede from the United States but they decided not to. Document A Source: Confederate States of America Declaration of the Immediate Causes Which Induce and Justify the Secession of South Carolina from the Federal Union; adopted December 24, 1860 Excerpt 1 Thus were established the two great principles asserted by the Colonies, namely: the right of a State to govern itself; and the right of a people to abolish a Government when it becomes destructive of the ends for which it was instituted. And concurrent with the establishment of these principles, was the fact that each Colony became and was recognized by the mother Country a FREE, SOVEREIGN AND INDEPENDENT STATE. Excerpt 2 Ã¢â¬ ¦an amendment was added [to the United States Constitution], which declared that the powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States, respectively, or to the people. Excerpt 3 Ã¢â¬ ¦in every compact between two or more parties, the obligation is mutual; that the failure of one of the contracting parties to perform a material part of the agreement, entirely releases the obligation of the other; and that where no arbiter is provided, each party is remitted to his own judgment to determine the fact of failure, with all its consequences. Excerpt 4 The ends for which the Constitution was framed are declared by itself to be Ã¢â¬Å"to form a more perfect union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity.Ã¢â¬ These ends it endeavored to accomplish by a Federal Government, in which each State was recognized as an equal, and had separate control over its own institutions. Excerpt 5 Ã¢â¬ ¦a new policy, hostile to the South, and destructive of its beliefs and safety. Excerpt 6 We, therefore, the People of South Carolina Ã¢â¬ ¦ solemnly declared that the Union heretofore existing between this State and the other States of North America, is dissolvedÃ¢â¬ ¦ Document B Source: Jefferson DavisÃ¢â¬â¢s inaugural address, February 8, 1861 Ã¢â¬Å"Resolved, That the maintenance inviolate of the rights of the States, and especially the right of each State to order and control its own domestic institutions according to its own judgment exclusively, is essential to that balance of power on which the perfection and endurance of our political fabric depend; and we denounce the lawless invasion by armed force of the soil of any State or Territory, no matter what pretext, as among the gravest of crimes.Ã¢â¬ Document C Source: Abraham LincolnÃ¢â¬â¢s inaugural address, March 4 1861 Apprehension seems to exist among the people of the Southern States that by the accession of a Republican Administration, their property, and their peace, and personal security, are to be endangered. There has never been any reasonable cause for such apprehension. Indeed, the most ample evidence to the contrary has all the while existed, and been open to their inspection. It is found in nearly all the published speeches of him who now addresses you. I do but quote from one of those speeches when I declare that Ã¢â¬Å"I have no purpose, directly or indirectly, to interfere with the institution of slavery in the States where it exists. I believe I have no lawful right to do so, and I have no inclination to do so.Ã¢â¬ Those who nominated and elected me did so with full knowledge that I had made this, and many similar declarations, and had never recanted them.Ã¢â¬ Document D Source: Map of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, K12 Inc.
Monday, July 29, 2019
Experiment # 1: Place a drop of water on a smooth plastic sheet or on the bench. Look at it closely from the side. Draw the outline of the drop. How are the molecules held in their place?image00.png The drop of water and the drop of detergent have a different thickness, because the molecules are held differently. The drop of water, in fact, has a higher thickness. The molecules are closed to each other and itÃ¢â¬â¢s possible to notice the surface that behaves as an elastic membrane that surrounds and compresses the underlying liquid. There is a force of cohesion that determines the surface tension. Experiment #2: Fill a clean 250 ml. beaker with water to about 1 cm. below the top. Carefully float a small filter paper on the surface. Carefully drop a needle, exactly horizontal, on the paper. Wait until the paper becomes soaked and sinks. Observe the needle carefully. After you have observed it, add one drop of detergent with a glass or plastic rod. the piece of paper floats on the water and then it sinks because it get too wet. the needle continues to float, although its specific gravity is higher than the waterÃ¢â¬â¢s one, maybe because the water surface forms a kind of membrane ( see: ex.#1), impenetrable by small objects (as the needle). Adding the detergent, the needle has sunk because the detergent breaks the bonds between water molecules that allowed to the needle to float. Very carefully, itÃ¢â¬â¢s possible to notice that the water surface gets curved under him ( as when we break a membrane, exactly).image01.png Experiment #3: Place a 250 ml. baker on a quite bench. Carefully, fill it into the brim (the top). Now carefully add water drop by drop until it begins to overflow. Now carefully add small amounts of Ammonium Chloride to the beaker using a spatula. How much can you add before the water overflows? Although we put lots of ammonium chloride, the water didnÃ¢â¬â¢t overflow. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s really strange, because another little drop of water would make it overflow! This happened because the ions of the ammonium chloride attract the water molecules, so they are closer together and therefore they take less space. Experiment #4: Fill a baker to halfway. Scatter chalk dust over the surface. Now add one drop of detergent with a glass or plastic rod. Observe and explain.image02.png The Lycopodium moved immediately when it enters in contact with the drop of detergent. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s maybe because the detergent is totally not attracted by the lycopodium. [ Ã¢â¬ ¦ ] Experiment #5: Fill a clean 250 ml. beaker to about 1 cm. below the top. Place two glass rods in the beaker, side by side. Where is the water between them? If itÃ¢â¬â¢s not easy to see, add some drops of a dye to make water more visible.image03.png Water is just attached to the glass, and it is possible to find it also outside the beaker, in the back of the two glass rods (as shown in the figure). ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s probably because if the space is smaller, the pull is stronger. Glass molecules are bigger than water molecules, so they use to attract them.
Personality and the Workplace Paper Situational Analysis - Essay Example For the purpose of this study, humanistic or existential will be the personality perspective in focus. The scenario will involve two parties of equal rank who will develop a conflict based on perceived socio-cultural differences. Both of them are associated to cultural groups, have had no significant histories of conflict with co-workers and are both being considered for promotion. Humanistic perspective will be applied to the analysis of the scenario with a particular focus on how personality affected the situation. In doing so, recommendations for the resolution of the existing conflict and preventing future ones can be determined. The conflict develops between the Product Development Manager (PDM) and the Sales Manager (SM) of a company due to the former's proposition that the new product, a new type of breakfast cereal should acquire halal certification. The PDM believes that gaining such a certification, reflecting that the product conforms to Muslim religious conditions for food preparations will reflect the product's sensitivity to the Muslim community and follow the merchandising strategies being implemented by international retail companies (Patton, 2006). However, the SM believes that because of considering the existing delay in the launching of the product, the certification has to be foregone and furthermore, he believes that the certification will not impact significantly the sales performance of the product which he considered as his primary priority. Interview of both managers reveal that though they often have had to work together, they have little knowledge of the other's private life. Upon further review, there seems to be also little common ground in their backgrounds. The PDM migrated to the country from Pakistan in his teens with his family because of threats of violence from extremist Muslims. His father supported their family by being through his professorship in one of the city's leading universities. He grew up in a traditional household and has had strong ties to the Muslim community particularly in the promoting cultural and social awareness. He believes strongly in social and religious tolerance and often deliberately avoids having to voice out personal opinions on sensitive socio-cultural issues. In contrast, the SM has been often described as and "all-American guy". He grew up in a predominantly Caucasian community and has strong ties with community through his involvement in local sports and recreation clubs. His interest in business was encouraged by his parents, both of whom had very successful business careers. He is very task-oriented, young in comparison to the other managers, has very strong opinions and does not hesitate to express himself. Analysis In the case presented, the contrasting personalities of the PDM and SM contribute to their conflict. Since part of conflict is being attributed to race, ethnicity or culture, there is heightened sensitivity in the reaction of the parties involved (Kibria, 2000). Because these factors are considered intimately with identity and self-esteem, communication and interaction can be significantly impeded (Reeve, 2005). Current research show that personality interaction is greatly influenced by external factors, particular if such factors impact social perceptions or characterizations (Biesanz et al,
Sunday, July 28, 2019
Phylogeny - Research Paper Example According to recent studies involving molecular analysis of 18S rRNA/DNA, paraphyly was evident in Porifera. It showed that Calcarea (calcareous sponges) appear to have closer affinities to other metazoans than fellow poriferans the siliceous sponges (both Hexactinellida and Demospongiae) which inevitably showed a great amount of radiation between these two groups (Adams, McInerney and Kelly 34). These new findings actually go a long way in supporting earlier calls for the subdivision of the phylum into two. More empirical data on molecular analysis in particular of 18S rRNA/DNA was provided which showed that there is a stronger affinity between calcareans and ctenophorans than that which is between calcareans and other poriferans. Poriferans (sponges) have always been regarded as the basal living metazoans that are monophyletic as far as phylogenetic studies are concerned. The various relationships of organisms at the metazoan tree base remain largely unknown despite the fact that n ew trends of triploblast systematics are emerging which provides a clear picture of the lineage. According to previously done classifications, these basal metazoan organism have been put in different relationships using several markers except one relationship; monophyly. Earlier analyses of the basal metazoans (sponges, placozoans, cnidarians and ctenophores) have almost unanimously agreed that cnidarians and ctenophores have more close ties or relations with triploblasts than they have with the sponges (poriferans) (Hooper and Willenz 11). In traditional phylogenetic schemes the ACANTHOCEPHALA, ENTOPROCTA, GASTROTRICHA, GNATHOSTOMULIDA, KINORHYNCHA, NEMATODA, NEMATOMORPHA, PRIAPULIDA and ROTIFERA were grouped together as aschelminths or pseudocoelomates. Discuss why we no longer support a taxon of ASCHELMINTHES and discuss how those phyla are now grouped. Aschelminthes was used to refer to assemblage of polyphyletic meiofaunal sized animals which included several phyla. However the legitimacy of Aschelminthes as a taxon was questioned on the basis of lack of morphological as well as molecular evidence. Currently, these organisms have been declassified into separate phyla. It is sometimes useful to use the term Aschelminthes to refer to all previously organisms that were classified under it. On top of this, it has not been agreed upon whether the formerly known organisms in this group make up a monophyletic group. To complicate matters further, it has not been decided on which phyla to place the Aschelminthes. According to recent morphological studies, the Aschelminthes was described as possibly having two clades (Aguinaldo 490). The two clades are gnathiferans that are hypothesized to contain a newly formed taxon Micrognathozoa while the other clade is Introverta. The second clade of Introverta is thought to be a possible link between Scalidophora and Nematoida. There is a possible remote relation between the introvertans and the panarthropods but for the gna thiferan clade, it has not yet been established if it falls within the bilateral organisms for certainty. Both gastrotrichs and chaetognaths phylogenetic placements are equally unsettled owing to unsettled issues in phylogenetic analyses. There has been a relation between Gastrotrichs and Nematoida, gnathiferans and introvertans. However, more close affinity between Gastrotrichs and introvertans than the others has been recognized and led to the formation of a clade called Nemathelminthes or
Saturday, July 27, 2019
Topic is stated in Details section - Essay Example The owners of the companies transferred their authority to full- time paid managers. There were also other developments during this period like the administrative hierarchies, dependable energy sources, transportation infrastructures like the railway and sophisticated accounting systems. To benefit from these industrial developments, Chandler argued that entrepreneurs had to make three forms of interrelated investment. The first investment was in technology itself in terms of quality machines that would enable the company produce many goods efficiently. The second was investment in management, and the third was investment in marketing and distribution networks. The market remained the generator of goods and services, but business empires took over the functioning of controlling products and services through existing processes of distribution and production. They also allocated funds for future production and distribution. Modern enterprises became the most powerful organizations in AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s economy. The managers also became the most influential decision makers leading to managerial capitalism. Administrative coordination resulted in improvements in productivity, lower costs, and higher gains than coordination by market techniques. The structure of administrative coordination as described by Chandler was hierarchical, and authority flowed from the top to the bottom. Upper-level managers in charge of planning, purchasing inputs, planning new products and market expansions and finally setting the corporate strategy, held the top positions. The middle managers held the second place in charge of the daily operations. Making sure inputs are at the right place at the right time, making sure that production runs smoothly, coordinating processes through which output moved to distribution network. Managing the individual stores, finally monitoring local demand conditions and reporting to the upper-level
Friday, July 26, 2019
Organ Trade Issue - Research Paper Example Because of the unexpected accidents and diseases or other life tragedies, many people lose some of their organs and often fell in troubles. For example, eyes are important organs in our body. Even when either one of the eyes loses its ability to see, it is difficult for us to see things properly. The case of ears is also not different. The kidney is another organ which is necessary for filtering out impurities from our body. All the humans have two kidneys, but only one is necessary to perform all the purification acts of our body. It is possible for a person with a defective kidney to transplant one from another person in order to lead a successful life. In other words, some of the defective human organs can be replaced with a new one if somebody agrees to donate one. Organ trade is a common thing in the current world nowadays. Many people argue in favor of and against organ trade citing different social, economic and ethical reasons. This paper argues in favor of organ trade after analyzing the pros and cons of the issue. In other words, buying and selling in human organs should be legalized under certain conditions.Ã Chris Chew (2007) has mentioned that the most controversial topics of ethical debates about organ trades are about the procurement and distribution of human organs for transplant and are centered on the questions of how do we get the organs and how do we decide who will receive organ transplants? (Chew). It is a fact that the creator has created only the necessary organs for the humans. For example, even if a human can survive with the help of one kidney alone, God has created another one as a substitute in case of a failure to either of the kidneys. Under such circumstances, if a person donates or sells one kidney for saving the life of another one, he is playing with his life.
Thursday, July 25, 2019
Professionalsim, Values and Ethics - Essay Example Sitting on the former site for Anglia Ruskin University, the two phase project is one of a kind in Chelmsford with its unique development plan. The project basically consisted renovation of three key historic buildings which include; the Law building, Frederick Chancellor building and finally the Anne Knight building. The project which is found in the town of Essex is strategically placed thus tend to enjoy a prime location in the town (www.chelmsford.gov.uk). The project lies adjacent to Central Park and is located opposite the Chelmsford station. Still under construction the project stands to boast of over 600 homes with a range of property types, that includes apartments, townhouses, offices, retail outlets, community use spaces and offices Therefore, this paper will seek to explore and examine various features of this project. Some of the key areas that are bound to be covered in this paper include; roles and relationship of the participants, planning and construction process, legal and contractual framework, impact of the project to its surrounding, legacy, values it expresses and the urge to find out whether the design or architecture was inspired by a particular approach. To achieve this task various research methods were applied in order to come up with a detailed description of this project. The methods used in obtaining information included browsing materials on the internet and holding interview sessions with those involved. The only limitation about this project is that it is still in progress now that the second phase is not complete (www.genesisha.org.uk). To conform to the topic, this paper will explore the professionalism, values and ethics of those involved in seeing the project come to a completion and also deliver quality products that guarantee customer satisfaction. In order to see the development of a high end product in city
Wednesday, July 24, 2019
Leadership and management - Assignment Example I will measure the productivity of the skills that I will have acquired on communication and relationship building. A Ã¢â¬â Attainable literature search can be done through the internet library and am able to appraise websites to find credible sources of information. Peter, Psychiatrist officer, has agreed to meet with me next week. I have the support of Peter, to practice my skills and obtain the feedback. R Ã¢â¬â Relevant I am currently working as a nurse and would like to become a manager within my organization or another organization after I have completed my BSN. I believe that the in building my communication and relationship skills in the position of a nurse will aid me to be more comfortable and competent in a manager position because I will have learned how to relate with everyone in the organization. I will resolve any conflict that might arise, leader of change, communicating freely with the patient , employing all types of communications in the organization and coming up with a culture. T Ã¢â¬â Time bound literature search through the library and the internet are in progress and will be completed by week three. The interview with an expert is scheduled on the second week. Practice of the skills will occur during weeks 3-5, evaluation during week six, and later complete my development (Rossiter, 2004). S Ã¢â¬â Specific I will identify patient care management skills by undertaking a search in libraries and also conducting experts in the skill. I will practice patient care management skill in order to better my skills. A Ã¢â¬â Attainable learning from my fellow colleagues is the simplest way of grasping full ideas that will be required of me. I will be able to delegate duties, my deliveries should be directed to the patient, communicate effectively with other departments within the organization. S Ã¢â¬âSpecific I will identify the strategic planning skills after working in the
Tuesday, July 23, 2019
Lighting Designer - Assignment Example Set designer shows lighting designer his plan with the placement of objects on the scene. It is important to elaborate common view on the lighting on this stage and choose relevant equipment. It is possible to prevent possible problems in this phase as well. The lighting designer has to collaborate with all team in order to interpret the play right and help other designers to create common Ã¢â¬Å"lookÃ¢â¬ of performance. The specialists constantly share their ideas and impressions from preparation. The work of lighting designer is completed by the very performance, and the light crew makes everything during the play under his control. Lighting designer uses specific instruments in his work and prepares a number of materials needed for production. He prepares some sketches and photos of the scenes with different types of lighting which serve various purposes. He elaborates lighting plot in which he indicates every lighting fixture to be utilized along with the general view of the stage. An equipment schedule which is created in the form of a list in which all the instruments that will be used during the staging are mentioned along with the circuits they will be connected. A cue sheet will help the lighting designer to understand what type of light, color, intensity, and prolongation will be used during the performance. The intensity of lighting is the means of creating the time of the day and the focus on the object. Intense light in complete darkness will attract viewers` attention to an actor when he is saying an important monologue or create haze and dim. The lighting designer works with direct and indirect light which come from various sources. The lighting designer operates with four light properties to create some specific atmosphere and mood: Lighting color is created with special filters and gels. Lighting colors give the opportunity to a designer to emphasize some element of the costume or a piece of scenery, make the accent on the actor`s face; The intensity of lighting is the means of creating the time of the day and the focus on the object. Intense light in complete darkness will attract viewers` attention to an actor when he is saying an important monologue or create haze and dim when it is appropriate; Distribution of lighting creates an illusion of lighting coming through various objects such as leaves of the trees; Lighting movement coordinates all the above-mentioned parameters allowing to change them from scene to scene. So the work of lighting designer consists of adjusting the light to the staging requirements and collaborating with other specialists to make a general look of performance. Ã Ã
First Day at an Electrical Job - Essay Example Ã On June 15, 2011, joy would be seen all over my face from the fact that I had secured a job at an Oryx gas-to-liquid company that is classified as a Natural gas producing company. The position that was designated to me was electrical maintenance personnel. My arrival at the Oryx Company was marked with great apprehension because I did not know what to expect in the electrical department of a gas producing company. Numerous pipes could be seen running from one place to another in the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s compound. Additionally, thick electrical cables were visible that were providing the machines with electrical powers. Natural gas dish machines contributed to most of the electrical machines, which I was designated to maintain by the human resource manager of the company. The morning production section alter I arrived at the company was running smoothly and my job was only to go through manuals that contained the maintenance procedure of the natural gas dish machines. ... exactly twelve oÃ¢â¬â¢clock, my supervisor and other electrical personnel took my presence very helping and decided to leave the observation of the electrical wiring as well as the natural gas dish machines. I observed the machines for two hours after which I sensed an electrical burn smell in one of the main supply electrical cable. The smell attracted the attention of other personnel in various departments in the company, which lead to numerous phone calls on the department that I was titled to, which was the department of electrical maintenance. With minimal time to waste, I picked the tools in the office and rushed to a spotted faulty cable. I was surprised to find that one of the motors coolant fans had slipped out of the confined metallic cages and cut the main supply electrical cable into two. The supply cable in that was cut fell on the surface of one of the motors. Most motor surfaces carry a current and once the cable had fallen on one of the surfaces, an electrical short followed intriguing a fire. Fortunately, the company had effective self-fire distinguishers; hence, the fire was put off immediately. Nevertheless, the avoided fire incident did not solve the main problem that had been caused by the faulty coolant fun, which was power cut-out to three natural gas dish machines. Additionally, there was no experienced electrical personnel at the moment that necessitated me to act quickly to fix the electrical supply cable. The process of fixing the cable involved creating a joint at the point that the fun had cut. The other main step was to ensure that the faulty fan was replaced to avoid such a risky incidence. However, most of the risk I got exposed to was fixing the damaged electrical supply cable.Ã Ã
Monday, July 22, 2019
The function of catecholase Essay 5 mL of enzyme, and all of the trials were set up as two tubes to begin with. One tube had 3. 5 mL of water and 2. 0 mL of catechol, and the other had . 5 mL of enzyme. By keeping the enzyme and substrate separate, we were able to have more control over the starting point of the reaction, and were able to bring each individual component to the desired temperature before starting. The temperatures that our group tested were 37oC, 45oC, 50oC, 55oC, 65oC, and 75oC. Both our group and group A-4 tested 37 and 45 degrees. This allowed us to compare each groups results more accurately. The setup for the actual experiment was that each temperature had its own test tube rack. Four tubes of water and catechol and four tubes of enzyme were put into each rack, and these racks were then submerged into either a hot water bath or a circulating water bath, depending on which temperature was being tested. The tubes were allowed to sit in the water for approximately five minutes to allow the contents of the tubes to come up to the temperature we were trying to test. Then the tube of enzyme was poured into the tube of catechol, the tube was covered and inverted to mix the contents, and the timer was started. We allowed the reaction to run from three to five minutes, keeping track of exactly how long each set went for. Our method for ensuring that the reactions ran for the exact length of time stated was to start each reaction thirty seconds later than the first, and then take the measurements from the spectrophotometer exactly thirty seconds apart, keeping the tubes in the same order. Before measuring each tube, we again inverted it several times to make sure that the product was uniformly distributed throughout the tube. Results Results for Group A-5 Temperature (degrees Celsius) Trial 1. Trial 2 Trial 3 Trial 4 Mean Standard Deviation 3 (Table 2) (Graph 1 (Graph 2)According to our results, the optimal temperature for the reaction of catecholase is 45oC. We were able to determine this because the average reaction rate was highest at this temperature (see table 1). We were correct in assuming that the reaction would gradually speed up as the temperature increased until it reached a point where the enzyme began to denature, and then the reaction rate would slow after that. This gradual increase, peak, and then decrease can be seen in the graph 1 above. The bars above and below each data point are representations of the standard deviation associated with each value. This shows how much variation we had within each set of trials. When we compared our results to group A-4, it was clear that they too found the peak reaction rate to be at the 45-degree temperature. This served to further verify our results. It is interesting to note that in the graph of both of our data, although the actual values are not the same, the overall conclusions are. Discussion After analysis of the data, it is clear that our hypothesis was correct, because the found peak does fall within the range of 23 and 75. We can be fairly certain that our data are correct because we were able to control the fixed variables, such as the amounts of each component of the reaction, very well by having the same person measure out the same thing for each trial. We were fairly accurate at controlling the temperature because the baths were monitored at a steady temperature for the time the reaction was taking place, although it would have probably been to our benefit to actually take the temperature of the liquids inside the test tubes instead of only monitoring the environment outside of the tubes. Also, we could have increased accuracy by having the spectrophotometer nearer to the baths, because there was some heat lost during transport, which could have affected the tubes that were measured later. There was also some confusion at the beginning of the experiment about exactly what technique was to be used, which resulted in our having to repeat the trials for the 65-degree temperature. We assume that similar problems are to blame for the differences in the reaction rates for 37o and 45o between our group and group A-4. We also discovered after the experiment had been completed that the other group had left the catechol out in a separate tube during heating, while we left the enzyme out. This difference in method may have contributed to the differences. To make sure that these problems did not result in faulty conclusions, I looked up another experiment on the effects of temperature done by Pierre Greenway. Greenways findings indicate that the peak temperature for enzyme function is actually at 40oC, and not 45. This is an interesting discovery, since we did not test thoroughly in the range of 37o-45o. The next course of experimentation suggested by these findings would be to thoroughly test the reaction rates at temperatures between 35 and 45 degrees Celsius. Measuring at one-degree intervals would give the best results, but may require another collaboration to be achieved in a reasonable amount of time. It may also be interesting to test the reaction rate at even higher temperatures, and try to find the point at which all of the enzyme is completely destroyed. According to the results of Greenway, this temperature was around 60oC for him, but we tested beyond that in our own experiment and found the rate to still be decreasing. Any of these questions would be interesting to try to answer.Ã ShowÃ The above preview is unformatted text This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Patterns of Behaviour section.
Sunday, July 21, 2019
European UnionÃ¢â¬â¢s Democratic Deficit: A Critical Assessment Introduction The European Union is in a middle of a crisis. The worst part of its economic crisis has passed but it still faces even more severe issue: a trust crisis. People do not feel represented by the European Union and have turned their support towards populist and radical movements. What is the basis of this crisis? Some authors incline to say it is the EUÃ¢â¬â¢s democratic deficit. Thus, since there is a wide gap between what EU citizens want from their politicians and how the EU bureaucrats and institutions act. This leads to a situation where the publicÃ¢â¬â¢s opinion and desires are not taking into account by the body that should represent them. Yet, first we need to analyse in detail what a democratic deficit means to then address this problem. Democratic deficit is a tricky issue as it does not have a widely accepted definition between politics and law scholars. Depending on the author and its background, the term can be used with different connotations and meanings; hence, the results of the analysis tend to depend on the notion of democratic deficit the author uses. Therefore, first, we shall develop our own democratic deficit conceptual approximation. Then, we will be able to lead a critical assessment on representation and participatory actual problems of the European Union. Afterwards, we will have all the tools necessary to address in detail if there is a true democratic deficit problem in the European Union and to propose some possible alternatives to solve it. The European Union and Democratic Deficit If a hyperbole is permitted, democratic deficit may have as many meanings as authors have discussed it. It is not an easy issue to address or to encompass in a single-simple definition. First of all, especially because, even though we can agree on some basis for democracy, in wide terms it is an ambiguous subject. So, what an author considers a democratic deficit will be highly influenced by what he considers to be a democracy. One of the first scholars to use this term was British David Marquand. He used it to define the democratic legitimacy faintness of Ã¢â¬âthen- European Community. He suggested direct elections for representatives before the European Parliament. When this was adopted, the issue around European Community democratic legitimacy arose even further, as for the European Parliament represented the voice of the European Community citizens but the Community was not ready to give more powers to the Parliament, causing more tension. After the approval of the Maastricht treaty, the problem grew. Two pillars were added to the Union (common Foreign and Security Policy and Home Affairs), and in none of them the Parliament had any control. Other authors propose the democratic deficit problem in the terms of a backwards HumeÃ¢â¬â¢s is/ought as they consider there is a discrepancy between is and ought/ should in the European Union institutions and democracy as the transfer of substantial amounts of political decision-making towards the supranational level on non-elected institutions has diminished the democratic influence and the basic control the citizens have on their political institutions. It is obvious that at the first stages of the European Community it was reasonable and necessary to keep citizens away from decision-making as it was initially designed to be an economic community and not a political institution, but its goals mutated in time. The Community passed from a purely economic institution to a political one. As it was a community formed by democratic countries, one could expect that the supranational body they formed would also have democratic and participatory channels. Nonetheless, European Union turned into a bureaucratic and political giant that has slowly diminished the national entities and directly-elected supranational bodies -European Parliament- and passed it to its hands. Yet, other approaches suggest that, even though the democratic deficit issue is real, it has to be attributed to the UnionÃ¢â¬â¢s member states, rather than the Union itself. Integration between European states was responding to a series of already-existing democratic legitimacy issues within the states. They argue that the Union is not democratic enough because the member states have not been able to democratise their integration. The issue of the lack of democracy within European Union institutions is not considered as the cause of the problem, but the natural consequence of the democratic deficit of European Union members. This perspective must be necessarily rebuked. Even with their flaws, most of the European Union members have developed and stable democracies. If an institution poses itself as the supranational ruler of a continent and its legitimate representative, it must follow the same form of government that those national units it intends to rule, which is democracy. Where could European Union legitimacy come if not from its citizens? The UnionÃ¢â¬â¢s decisions directly impact its citizens, as much as a national government decision, or even more. It also breaks citizensÃ¢â¬â¢ capacity to rely on the regular channels of influence Ã¢â¬âvoting- to ensure they are being listened and to participate in political process. The lack of democracy of the Union and is tightness to evolve and accept citizens demands only causes further disgust and loss of legitimacy. European Union is a sui generis institution, as it is not a state but it represents them and takes decisions in their name, therefore it should be held accountable for its decisions in direct elections. One cannot fail to notice that there is a deep democratic deficit in the European Union from the turnout in its elections. Ever since legislative powers were transferred to the Council of Ministers of the European Union from the national governments, the setup of the European Union shifted from that of an economic block to that of a political one. The lack of democracy in the Union has been evident in the voter turnout. From the first vote in 1979, the turnout has been going lower and lower with the 2014 election having a disappointing turnout of 42.54%. Compared to the individual member nations where the average voter turnout is 68%, this is a sign that the members of the European Parliament have noted something wrong with the setup and are thus silently revolting. This has led to the debate as to what ought to be done to get the Union back on track. While one side states that reforms are enough to make the Union serve its needs, others think the European Union should be simply debunked. The fact that the European Union has a lot of benefits for its member states and the world in general, however, means that its abolishment is not the best solution. To get the best solution for the case, therefore, requires an in-depth analysis of how the Union works and where it is failing. The Origin of the Democratic Deficit of the European Union Looking at the origins of the European Union, it is easy to make the conclusion that it was primarily meant to be purely economic and the introduction of the political aspects only complicated issues. The Treaty of Paris in 1951 saw to the formation of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) which was meant to provide a trading bloc for coal and steel in Europe as suggested by its name. In 1957, the Treaty of Rome saw to the establishment of the European Economic Community (EEC). The EECÃ¢â¬â¢s original members were known as the European Communities. In 1993, the Maastricht Treaty would see to the establishment of the European Union. With the European Union came the introduction of European citizenship. The latest of the treaties in this regard is the 2009 Treaty of Lisbon. While a lot has changed in the structure and function of the European Union to the present moment, some of the problems that plague the Union are the same.Ã The Manifesto for the Young European Federalists by Richard Corbett first raised the issue of the lack of democracy in the European Union in 1977 where the term democratic deficit was first used. David Marquand would later use the term in reference to the workings of the European Economic Community. The coining of the term primarily focused on the European Parliament, which was previously referred to as the European Assembly, and why it had a deficit of democracy. The primary argument behind this assertion is that the Parliament was made up of members who had not been directly elected by the citizens of the European Union. As such, the European Union was not serving the needs of its citizens but those of a few people. Effectively, the European Union is thus not democratic enough given that it does not meet the definition of a democracy where there is a government for the majority. The fact that the majority is not represented through free and fair elections of the members of the European Parliament is one point to the fact that there is a deficiency of democracy in the Union. The European Constitution The European Union prides itself in democratic legitimacy through various aspects of the constitution. The first of these aspects is the European Parliament. The Parliament is subject to the electorates of the member states. The other organs are the Council of the European Union also called the Council of Ministers, and the European Council made up of the heads of national governments of the member states. The European Parliament and the Council of the European Union appoint the European Commission members. This system of making decisions is supposed to give the European Union democratic legitimacy in the same way the US House of Representatives and the US Senate give democratic legitimacy to the United States. Decisions are thus to be reached by both bodies agreeing, and a third organ in this case the European Commission. The intended democratic legitimacy has, however, not been entirely attained by the European Union. The construction of the Union itself has occasioned what the German Constitutional Court called a structural democratic deficit in the Union. This court established that the process of making decisions for the European Union was primarily those of an international organisation rather than those of a government. The difference is that, as an international organisation, the European Union based its democracy on the equality of the member nations rather than the citizens of these countries. It is thus difficult to reconcile the needs of the citizens and those of the member nations of the European Union provided its operation as an international organisation rather than a government. Similarly, the British Electoral Reform Society filed a report in 2014 to the same issue of the EU constitution having a structure which focused on the needs of the member states rather than the citizens. The r eport stated that, while the European Union has focused on upholding the principles of democratic engagement, accountability and representativeness, there is the need to focus on the needs of the minority in any democracy. The European Union, being mostly made up of minorities, thus needs to have a focus on serving the needs of the citizens rather than those of the member governments. Democratic Deficit and the European Commission One of the main structures put in place by the European Union in support of democracy is the European Commission. First, there has been criticism concerning the legitimacy of the European Commission and its role in the initiation of legislation in the European Union. However, this criticism does not have the backing of facts as similar bodies within national governments have yielded similarly poor results. However, its position as a body that legitimises the European Union and its take on democracy has failed by a large extent. The main weakness with such a body, as also noted in the case of the United States government, is that the regulations may be so detailed that the member states have little freedom in making their decisions on legislation. While the issue of a democratic deficit was noted as far back as the 1970s when the idea of a united Europe was still in development, democratic legitimacy has always been an issue the Union has been dealing with ever since. When the Treaty of Lisbon was put in place, its primary aim was to provide room for better democracy in the region. The Treaty of Lisbon required that the President of the European Commission ought to take account of the results of the European Union parliamentary elections. This simply means that the President of the European Commission should be nominated by theÃ most dominant group in the parliament. This step effectively makes the European Union a political body rather than the economic one meant for the over watch of the economic activities of Europe. In fact, the European Union, owing to this kind of structure, has become partly a federation and also an international organisation. The President of the European Commission would thus be partly elected and partly appointed. This position gives the president less power than is needed to win the confidence of the population, and too much power to earn the trust of the governments of the member nations. The resulting model is one where little democracy is accorded to the citizens of the European Union and their governments as well. The European Parliament and Democratic Deficit When the European Parliament was set up, a lot of people were ready to voice its weaknesses in seeing to the implementation of legislation. However, political scientists would come to the rescue of this organ by stating that, first, the European Parliament is different from the parliaments of single countries due to various factors such as the lack of a divide between the government and the opposition, the presence of a divide between the executive and the legislature, the presence of political parties that are decentralised, bipartisan voting, and the roles of the various committees. For this reason, the European Parliament has been compared to the US House of Representatives but with the advantage of not having a governing body over it like the latter house. The fact that the majorities in the European Parliament have to be built each time while depending on negotiations, persuasions, and explanations ought to make it better in function than the US House of Representatives. This is true given that the lack of interference between the executive and the legislature has made the European Commission and the European Parliament more effective. For instance, the member states of the European Union have less than 15% of their legislative initiatives becoming the law. This is largely due to the lack of support from the executive. The executive bodies, on the other hand, rarely require the input of the legislature in the same nations to pass amendments. The role of the European Parliament is the propositioned amendments to the existing laws. The success rate of these amendments is as high as 80% with the lowest levels recorded (mostly for the hotly contested topics) is at 30%. To an extent, however, the structure of the European Parliament allows for a level of lack of accountability and weakness when it is compared to parliaments with an overwatch body like the case of the US House of Representatives. Voter Turnout in European Elections and the Impact on Democratic Deficit With any democracy, the legitimacy of the leaders in power heavily relies upon the turnout of the voters during elections. The European Parliament has had some of the lowest levels of elections voter turnout hence the reduction in its democratic legitimacy. This is based on the fact that the turnout of the European Parliament elections has been declining consistently since its formation. However, the President of the European Union, Pat Cox, said that the 1999 European Parliament elections and a far much better turnout than the presidential elections in the United States. Compared, the voter turnout for the presidential elections in the United States in 1996 was 49%. However, the voter turnout in the European Parliament elections for 1999 was at 49.51 percent. For both types of elections, this turnout was among the very lowest. While both are at their lowest, it is difficult to use this as an excuse for the lack of democracy in the European Union. As a matter of fact, the case of the United States is very different from that of the European Union and the reasons for the low voter turnouts. For the European Union, the people have an option of whether to belong to the Union or not. And the way they can show their willingness to belong or not belong to the Union is through participating (or not participating) in its activities such as elections. The social aspect of the European Union, that of being accepted or rejected by the people, has been observed in the way the people have turned out in low numbers at each European Parliament vote. The massive lack of knowledge for the common citizen of the European Union has led to the lack of participation by the voters. On the other hand, the United States electorate can have a low voter turnout for many other reasons none (or very little) of which is being against the union that is the United States. As it is, the European Union is not a very effective and efficient democracy given that its workings are not in line even with the developing democracies of the world. First, it is torn between being a government, and an international organisation. Secondly, the citizens, having seen that the democracy of the Union does not work (and it is too complex to understand), are increasingly ceasing to buy into the idea of the European Union being there to improve their lives through fostering democracy. Democratic Deficit and the Council of the European Union Another organ of the European Union is the Council of the European Union. This Council is also part of the efforts of the union to foster democracy among the member states. Its primary role is acting as the voice of the member governments of the EU while adopting the laws European Union and coordinating the polices of the union as well. Depending on the policies of the union, the government ministers of the members states are the members or the Council of the European Union. The presidency of the Council is held on a rotating basis (among the states) with each president holding the office for 6 months only. The Council carries out voting on legislation and discussions with both exercises being held in public. The decisions are based on a qualified majority whereby at least 55% of the countries (which is about 65% of the total population of the European Union) are required. In blocking a decision, 4 nations are needed (being the equivalent of 35% of the European Union population). For issues that are of an administrative and procedural nature require a simple majority while a unanimous vote is needed for the very sensitive topics such as taxation and foreign policy. While the structure of the Council of the European Union seems to read democracy all through it, the same weaknesses that plague the European Parliament plague it hence it is just another example of democratic deficit in the EU. For one, own-initiative reports from either the European Parliament or the Council of the European Union do not have legal consequences as such to the member states. Also, both bodies cannot play major roles in the amendment and repealing of legislation that is already in place. Lastly, and most importantly, the bodies do not address the needs of the citizens of the member nations. Looking at the structure of the European Union, it is easy to conclude that the reason it has not met the needs of the citizens is because there is too much bureaucracy between the top organs of the Union and the common citizens for the member states. The organs are too separated from the citizens in that the decision made take a very long route to reach the citizen. The representatives also have to make decisions which serve the needs of the Union and those of their respective countries; an issue which often introduces a conflict of interest. What the European Union has Done to Better Democratic Legitimacy All the concerns expressed here about the democratic legitimacy of the European Union have been expressed before by various persons and bodies and they have been heard by the people at the helm of the Union. For this reason, the Union has put in place various changes to the constitution with the focus being on doing away with the noted weaknesses in the laws and constitution of the Union in general. Among the changes made include the introduction of the Maastricht Treaty. This was a landmark treaty which is credited with the introduction of citizenship of the European Union. This citizenship would grant EU citizens voting rights to the European Parliament in each of their countries. Even municipal elections of the European Union were also included in the treaty. The treaty would also introduce co-decision procedure in which the European Parliament was given powers that gave it an equal footing to the Council of the European Union in making legislative decisions. These steps would make the European Parliament much more functional and powerful but not powerful enough to overcome the issues of being a purely democratic entity. Ã The other change made to the constitution of the European Union is the Treaty of Lisbon. Becoming effective from the 1st of December 2009, the treaty saw to better representation of the EU citizens both directly in the European Parliament and indirectly through the Council of the European Union. This was meant to foster democracy and representation. The treaty would also see to the implementation and acceptance of the co-decision procedure as the primary procedure for the legislative dealings of the Union. The Treaty of Lisbon is also credited with tremendously increasing the powers of the European Parliament by a large extent. One of the main areas in which the Treaty of Lisbon helped focus on the EU citizens was in giving the citizens the right to make petitions to the European Parliament concerning any matters of material effect. This increased the powers of the citizen and their levels of participating in the making of decisions. Further on, the treaty would ensure th at Council of the European Union meetings which discussed public matters are made public for all to see. In this way, the citizens can better understand the debates and the workings of the European Union. The Treaty of Lisbon also receives credit for improving on the role played by the national parliaments of the member nations in putting in place the laws and legislations of the Union. Lastly, the Treaty of Lisbon is credited with giving the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union full legal effect. This meant that various steps taken by the European Commission, the Council of the European Union, and the European Parliament would have full legal effect in areas where they apply. Conclusion The workings of the European Union in seeking democracy have been so far ineffective on various levels as observed above. While there is intention from the leaders of the European Union to remedy these weaknesses in the workings of the Union, the fundamental reason why there have been low levels of success when it comes to attaining democracy for all citizens is its structure. It aims to operate like a government yet at its basic form it is an amalgamation of governments. Each of these governments have different needs, goals, histories and fundamental principles. The rest is that the leaders of each country first take care of their countriesÃ¢â¬â¢ needs before those of the European Union. Also, its structure makes it difficult to make laws that will lead to better governance as each piece of legislation needs to have the needs of the many member states at heart. With time, it can be hoped that better legislation will be enabled for all the democracy to be attained. References Avbelj, M. 2005. Can the New European Constitution Remedy the EU Democratic Deficit?. EUMAP.org Campbell, M (2012) The Democratic Deficit of the European Union. Claremont-UC Undergraduate Research Conference on the European Union, p. 25. Castro, C. (2015). Assessing the Democratic Deficit in the EU: towards a Participatory Approach. RIPS, 14 (1), p. 63. Craig, P; Grainne De; P. P. Craig (2007). Chapter 11 Human rights in the EU. EU Law: Text, Cases and Materials (4th ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 379. Dilek, K. (2011). The Problem of Ã¢â¬Å"Democratic DeficitÃ¢â¬ in the European Union. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 1 (5) p. 244. Electoral Reform Society Ã¢â¬â Close the Gap Ã¢â¬â Tackling Europes democratic deficit. European Parliament: Relations with National Parliaments. Innerarity, D (2015). The Inter-Democratic Deficit of the European Union: The Governance of Europes Economic, Political and Legal Transformation. Pp. 173-174. Kelemen, R. (2012). The Rules of Federalism: Institutions and Regulatory Politics in the EU and Beyond. Harvard University Press. pp. 21Ã¢â¬â22. Milev, M. (2004) A Ã¢â¬ËDemocratic DeficitÃ¢â¬â¢ in the European Union? Master Thesis, I.H.E.I. p. 10. SchÃ ¼tze, R (2012). European Constitutional Law. Cambridge University Press. p. 99.  Castro, C. (2015). Assessing the Democratic Deficit in the EU: towards a Participatory Approach. RIPS, 14 (1), p. 63.  Milev, M. (2004) A Ã¢â¬ËDemocratic DeficitÃ¢â¬â¢ in the European Union? Master Thesis, I.H.E.I. p. 10  Milev (2004), pp. 11-12.  Dilek, K. (2011). The Problem of Ã¢â¬Å"Democratic DeficitÃ¢â¬ in the European Union. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 1 (5) p. 244  Castro, C. (2005), p. 66.  Innerarity, D (2015). The Inter-Democratic Deficit of the European Union: The Governance of Europes Economic, Political and Legal Transformation. Pp. 173-174  Campbell, M (2012) The Democratic Deficit of the European Union. Claremont-UC Undergraduate Research Conference on the European Union, p. 25.  Electoral Reform Society Ã¢â¬â Close the Gap Ã¢â¬â Tackling Europes democratic deficit.  Kelemen, R. (2012). The Rules of Federalism: Institutions and Regulatory Politics in the EU and Beyond. Harvard University Press. pp. 21Ã¢â¬â22.  Charlemagne. 2013. A democratic nightmare: Seeking to confront the rise of Eurosceptics and fill the democratic deficit. The Economist.  Avbelj, M. 2005. Can the New European Constitution Remedy the EU Democratic Deficit?. EUMAP.org  SchÃ ¼tze, R (2012). European Constitutional Law. Cambridge University Press. pp. 31Ã¢â¬â32.  SchÃ ¼tze, R (2012). European Constitutional Law. Cambridge University Press. pp. 43Ã¢â¬â44  SchÃ ¼tze, R (2012). European Constitutional Law. Cambridge University Press. p. 99.  European Parliament: Relations with National Parliaments.  Craig, P; Grainne De Burca; P. P. Craig (2007). Chapter 11 Human rights in the EU. EU Law: Text, Cases and Materials (4th ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 379.
Saturday, July 20, 2019
Hofstede (1997) defined culture as the Ã¢â¬Å"collective programming of the mind that distinguishes the members of one group or category of people from othersÃ¢â¬ (p. 6). He referred to mental programming in order to explain patterns of thinking, feeling, and acting. Cultural manifestation is identified as symbols, heroes, rituals, and values as a learned programming that is dependent on a social environment. Values represented the deepest manifestations of culture and are considered cultureÃ¢â¬â¢s building blocks (Hofstede, 1980). One well-known paradigm Hofstede introduced is called cultural dimensions that include four independent cultural dimensions: power distance, individualism/collectivism, masculinity/femininity, and uncertainty avoidance. After further research, he developed the fifth dimension known as long-term/short-term orientation (Hofstede, 2001). The following section will discuss five of the dimensions to identify the cultural differences between the United States, India, and Thailand. Power Distance The power distance index Ã¢â¬Å"is the extent to which the less powerful members of organizations and institutions accept and expect that power is distributed unequallyÃ¢â¬ (Itim International, 2009). It is a fundamental structure endorsed by the societiesÃ¢â¬â¢ followers and leaders in areas such as social status, wealth, and sources of power. A high power distance society embraces people with power. Powerful people are expected to have privileges, openly show their status and wealth, and are perceived to be good. On the other hand, a low power distance society embraces uniformity and minimizes inequalities. Those who hold more power in these societies attempt to look less powerful than they are (Albers-Miller & Gelb, 1996). HofstedeÃ¢â¬â¢... ...tinuous, ANOVA is the most appropriate method of analysis. Research Question The research question proposed there would be differences in levels of organizational dissent between India, Thailand, and the U.S. The ANOVA revealed significant differences in levels of dissent between the three groups. The means and standard deviations are displayed in Table 2. Overall, Americans are the most likely to express articulated dissent, with Thais being the less least likely: F(4, 1446) = 5.10, Ã¯ ¨2 = .01, p Discussion The results revealed significant differences between Americans, Indians and Thais regarding the expression of dissent.
There are many different ways to run a successful and effective classroom. Numerous people have tried to give me the best advice for making things work, but ultimately it will be my choice to decide what works best for me. By assessing the students' needs, I will be able to provide a curriculum and classroom environment that will hopefully motivate their learning. In assessing my own needs, I can make the proper actions necessary to make sure that those needs are met. Rules and consequences fall under both the needs of the student and the teacher, so those are essential as well. In the following, I will discuss what I find to be the needs of the student, the needs of the teacher, and how my philosophy on rules, consequences, and discipline play into these needs. According to several educational psychologists and theorists, there are many different needs of a student. I agree particularly with Glasser, who states that students have a need for belonging, "fun", freedom, and a warm environment with a meaningful and engaging curriculum. Linda Albert contributes more by theorizing that the student needs to feel accepted (by being who they are, without judgment), and that student needs attention and affection (Devito, 2004). These, in my own opinion, are some of the most important needs that a teacher might face, especially when teaching adolescents. While all students have different needs, these are a few that are shared by most. Often times, as a teacher you are the most influential adult figure in a child's life. By creating a warm environment where the student not only feels comfortable, but is eager to come to, you have created the beginning of a successful learning environment. Once you have the student in class, who is ready to learn, the need for an interesting and stimulating curriculum is a must. One cannot teach a student who is disengaged and bored, so as a teacher it is necessary to understand the need for exploring topics of interest. Not only do students have the needs as listed above, but according to Kohn, they also have the need to be treated as individuals (Devito, Spring 2004). Democratically speaking, Glasser says they also need a sense of power in addition to their need to be treated as individuals (Devito, Spring... ...tor, not an acquaintance. Disciplining a student isnÃ¢â¬â¢t the highlight of my career path, but it is essential to maintaining the organized classroom I need and it will be done. In order to learn, students need discipline with dignity. They need to know that misbehavior is not okay, and that there are rules and standards to live by in the classroom, just like there is in the Ã¢â¬Å"real worldÃ¢â¬ . Students, when given a routine and are treated with structure, generally perform better. By instilling discipline in the classroom, I hope to provide a more stable and more effective learning environment for all. Above all, my educational philosophy in discipline focuses on consistency. I have learned through all theorists, Ms. Devito, all my other professors, and by my own experience that this is a must in the classroom. It is important to be impeccable with our word as teachers because often times, it is the only leverage that we have over the students. As humans alone, it is the most powerful tool that we possess. If a teacher makes false promises and empty threats, then inevitably, their word becomes worthless and their credibility is ruined. This is somewhere no teacher wants to go.
Friday, July 19, 2019
Lucent Technologies BACKGROUND Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In 1996, AT&T decided to split into three different companies. These new companies were the new AT&T, NCR, and Lucent Technologies. Lucent Technologies is one of the leading designers, developers, and manufacturers of telecommunications systems, software, and products.1 They are beginning to emerge as a Fortune 40 company. Lucent Technologies builds local networks, business telephone systems, and consumer telephones that access the global networks.2 Lucent Technologies was launched with an initial public stock offering in April.3 AT&T owns an 82% share of the company.4 KEY PERSONNEL Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Lucent technologies has 125,000 employees worldwide. Approximately 82% of its employees come from the United States and the other 18% come from foreign countries.5 Lucent Technologies has offices in more than 90 countries, and Bell Labs has offices in 13 countries.6 Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The chairman and chief executive officer is Henry B. Schacht. Schacht has been on AT&T's board of directors since 1981. He has also held chairman and chief executive officer positions at Cummings Engine Company, INC.7 Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Lucent Technologies' President and chief operating officer is Richard A. McGinn. McGinn joined AT&T in 1978. He has previously served as executive vice president and chief executive officer of AT&T's network group. From 1994 to 1996, McGinn served on the AT&T management executive committee.8 BUSINESS STRUCTURE Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Lucent Technologies is composed of four operating units. These four units are: Business Communication Systems, Consumer Products, Microelectronics Group, and Network Systems. These units are designed to work together to provide innovative and cost-efficient solutions for customers. Bell Laboratories supports each group.9 Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Bell Laboratories is a research and development organization that is recognized throughout the world for its achievements in science and technology. Currently, Bell Laboratories is focusing on developing: Digital signal processor algorithms, Lightwave communications (photonics), Networking, Silicon chips, Software, and Wireless communications.10 Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Business Communications Systems design, manufacture, install, and service advanced voice and multimedia systems worldwide.11 Consumer Products design, manufacture, sell, and lease communications products for consumers, small offices, and home offices. In 1995 in the United States, Consumer Products sold 31% of the corded phones, 28% of the cordless phones, and 35% of answering machines.12 The Microelectronics Group makes integrated circuits, power systems, and optoelectronic components for Lucent Technologies.13 The largest unit of Lucent Technologies is the Network Systems. The Network Systems designs, develops, and manufactures networking systems and software for telecommunications providers, wireless communications is growing at an annual rate of 33 percent.14 BUSINESS STRATEGY Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The worldwide demand for communications systems is booming. Lucent Technologies is predicting a 10% annual growth for the communications industry. The business is pursuing growth opportunities around the world and is trying to build on Bell Laboratories established global relationships with its key customers. 15 Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Much emphasis for advancement is being put on the areas of Wireless
Thursday, July 18, 2019
The aim of this report is to carry out a feasibility study for the development and the manufacture of a novel synthetic fibre to be used to make leisure clothing aimed at the spring and summer market, as asked by our board of directors. I will present a report addressing the project in terms of the Innovation Cycle for product development. This shall cover the definition and evaluation of the products, their form, market and manufacture in terms of the Product Innovation Major Steps, which include: Needs: What needs should the product fill? Ideas: What different products could satisfy these needs? Selection: What ideas are the most promising? Manufacture: How can we make the product in commercial quantities? Innovation Cycle: Product Innovation involves the introduction of a new good or service that is new or substantially improved from previous versions. Innovation is not just about new products, it is a whole new approach to business. The novel synthetic fibre that I will analyse is Nylon with main uses in clothing and footwear. Nylon is a commodity chemical as it is produced in high volumes and yields low profits and so it has a low added value. There is no large scale need for chemists and engineers in commodity chemicals. Needs: What needs should the product fill? The product should fill the customer's needs and to find the needs of the customer, we need to do market research and ask the customers directly what they require through questionnaires or interviews. This is known as primary research as answers are directly answered to the companies needs. Once loads of information has been collected, the customers needs have to be interpreted and taken into consideration. This information can then be used into product specifications and therefore products are produced depending on customer needs. For example, customer needs for the manufacture of Nylon to produce leisure clothing. Essential: o Light weight o Strong o Comfortable Desirable: o Wear resistance o Long lasting o Easy to wash o Easy to iron Useful: o Cheap Specifying a benchmark would be one of the final stages in the needs. The new developed product must meet up to standards with either existing products or an idealised product. If this is not the case then and the benchmark cannot be achieved or surpassed, then it is not worth developing the product. Ideas: What different products could satisfy these needs? The next step in the innovation cycle is to generate ideas. Most of the source of ideas comes from the: > Development team. These people research into the product into great detail and most of the ideas are generated by the developing team. > Customers. Questionnaires and interviews are analysed and a different view of ideas are produced. The interviews and questionnaires can be very important as the customers will be the ones who buy the products at the end and they may also be using similar or existing products. Although questionnaires can sometimes be unreliable if not enough data is collected. > Competitors. Useful data can be obtained if you as a company are selling similar products. > Consultants. These are often not as useful as customers or the development team. > Literature. This will have a large range of views and if researched into properly, books, patents and trade information will produce some excellent ideas. Product development teams generate ideas by brainstorming which is a group exercise and mind mapping which is usually done individually. In developing a product, it requires up to one hundred ideas to find an idea which is really worth going for. To reduce the amount of ideas we have to only the good ideas we have to organise ideas into specific categories which may require more brainstorming. The more ideas are organised, the more we would be able to realise if they are strengths or weaknesses in organisations. Selection: What ideas are the most promising? From all the ideas we have generated, we only take very few good ideas to take forwards for production. To select these few good ideas to take forward we need a Screening Criteria which would select the best ideas. This selection process now would require scientific and engineering judgement. These are: o Safety Ã¢â¬â Make sure that the product (nylon) would be safe to produce and wear. o Low environmental impact Ã¢â¬â Make sure that nylon produced clothes and any by-products are not dangerous to the environment o Low cost Ã¢â¬â Make sure that the method of producing nylon is the cheapest with the highest return for money o Minimum risk Ã¢â¬â Make the manufacture of nylon economically feasible o Engineering ease Ã¢â¬â Make the manufacture of nylon technically feasible After the screening process and choosing the best ideas, we now need to do a risk assessment. This will identify and catalogue all risks of producing the product (nylon). Eliminating the risk will be the most important thing and then we can compare quantitatively the terms of the cost and time. Risk management also need to be put in place as to reduce risks or possible risks before proceeding, or accepting the risk and proceeding. This decision is based entirely upon management and the best option will be chosen for the organisation at that time. Manufacture: How can we make the product in commercial quantities? At this stage we are now ready to decide how to produce the product. We have the chemical product we need to manufacture; we have identified customer needs and generated enough ideas to fill this need. When considering the manufacturing process we need to take into account: o Raw materials o Demand for supply o Time taken for product to reach the market o Size of plant o Labour o Operating and capital costs of plant After the manufacturing costs of the product (nylon clothes), we need to consider the packaging. This should be: o Attractive o Waterproof to prevent water ruining the nylon After the packaging, we can finally sell the product. To get the product out onto the market we could: o Advertise in clothes shops o Advertise on TV After advertising, the product would have reached out to a far reaching population.